. EXCEPT: Alien Life, A Scientific Guide for Antimatter and Human Space Travel (for Cosmic Curiosity) "(Grand Central Publishing, 2018), Space.com senior writer Mike Wall discusses the most urgent questions about alien life. For example, how do scientists seek ET? What can aliens look like, want to kill us and have sex? The book, which was published on November 13th, also talks about the search for humanity's quest to get rid of natal stone and spread it to the solar system. You can read a quote below.
Part 1: Where is Everybody?
In 1950, the Nobel laureate physicist Enrico Fermi – the team of the first nuclear reactor, the inadequate team of the Chicago Pile-1, and several of his friends during the lunch break had discussed UFOs. The conversation asked Fermi to ask his comrades nerede Where is everyone? Konuşma. [13 Ways to Hunt Intelligent Aliens]
Fermi said the lack of visits by ET was very strange. The Milky Way hosts hundreds of billions of stars and is about 13 billion years old, so there was plenty of time and opportunity for foreign civilizations to rise and spread in the galaxy. According to some estimates, a colonization-thinking species with far more advanced drive technology than its own can travel to every corner of the Milky Way in a few million years.
The simple question of the physicist is now considered the paradox of the crocodile paradox of Fermi, one of the two paradoxes of all times – and continues to find scientists today. Indeed, the mystery has deepened considerably over the years. For one thing, we're not just talking about oblivion. In 1960, 6 years after Fermi's death, astronomer Frank Drake, extraterrestrial intelligence at the Tau Ceti and Epsilon Eridani as the nearby sun in the Green Bank Observatory in West Virginia. searched for a radio telescope to start the search (SETI). After about 60 years, SETI scientists are still hunting for the first tape confirmed from ET.
Then there's the external planet revolution. The foreign worlds were purely hypothetical objects in the days of Fermi and for decades to come; Until 1992, scientists announced the first detection of a planet beyond the solar system. But over the past decade, NASA's Kepler space telescope and other instruments have revealed that the cosmos is full of life-supporting worlds. Kepler's discoveries show that about 20 percent of the Sun-like stars of the Milky Way host a world-sized world in the ın livable region K. This is the season of orbital distances that will allow you to walk on flip-flops for almost many years. This ratio seems to be similar for the red dwarfs, the small dwarf stars that dominate our galaxy. (Nearly 75 percent of the Milky Way stars are red dwarfs, whereas only 10 percent are like our sun.)
Ay There's a lot of real estate out there, and now we know that, ü said the radio astronomer Jill Tarter, who founded the SETI Institute in Mountain View in California, and Ellie Arroway, one of Carl's leading characters. was the inspiration. Sagan & # 39; s novel Contact and the film based on it.
Not all of these properties are in boonies. Proxima Centauri, the closest neighbor of the sun, hosts a world-sized planet in the habitable region. The seven rocky planets surround the dwarf star TRAPPIST-1, not far from us in the cosmic order of things – and as far as we know, three of these worlds can support life. (Proxima Centauri and TRAPPIST-1 are 4.2 light years and 39 light years respectively. The entire Milky Way is about 100,000 light years wide.) [The 7 Earth-Sized Planets of TRAPPIST-1 in Pictures]
So, again: where is everyone? Nobody knows. The Fermi paradox is tougher than Brazilian peanuts, and scientists have not yet broken it. But not because I haven't tried. They developed hundreds of hypotheses to explain this. The diversity of these ideas, as noted by physicist Stephen Webb in his book, covers just a few basic possibilities. If the Universe is worried about foreigners, where is everyone? Let's take a look at each of these three explanations of his family.
Probability 1: Which paradox? Smart aliens are already dealing with us
You may have already wandered, irritated or repented because I put the Fermi paradox on the same ground as the beloved crocodile paradox. Maybe you're just copying a dog-eared copy. Cars of the Gods? or Fox's 'alien autopsy' TV feature in the 1990s.
Indeed, a possible solution to the Fermi paradox is that there is no paradox because ET has already traveled to the Earth. Supporters of this statement often point to UFO observations and alien abduction stories that you can read in chapter 10. According to our purposes, it is sufficient to say that scientists often do not see any of these reports as convincing proof of foreign life. . (If you do, you'll definitely hear that.)
There are more subtle possibilities in the game. For example, if people came to our planet a long time ago, what would happen before people were walking around? This is far more likely than a documented visit, given the fact that foreigners are not particularly interested in us, as our species has been present for the last 200,000 years of the Earth's 4.5 billion year history and can capture blur. Low-light video for just a few years.
Let's spoil some wild speculation, because it's fun! Let us say that the Earth has colonized many times on eons by the greedy, alien alien civilizations that base the domestic species of the planets on the dust in the process. (Don't be too high and strong: we pioneered leading the way to ecological damage as people explore the world.) As astrophysicist and science fiction writer David Brin points out, the history of such persecution may explain why. the silence of the radio in our galactic neighborhood for a long time to emerge on our planet. Perhaps it is the only planet for the light year that was freed from the invasion of earth.
If you are a little surprised, this scenario is in line with the disappearance of the five masses that scientists have mentioned in the fossil record. These big purges occurred about 450 million years ago, 375 million years ago, 251 million years ago, 200 million years ago, and 66 million years ago, the most famous one, when an asteroid attack erased three-quarters of the entire world. dinosaurs. In an article dated 1983, Brin wrote to compare the periods of these extinction events and the time spent by different invasion wave locations on the Earth. The dino-killer asteroid could even be a weapon of war, wrapped in an alien foreign object that settled with a brace against its brothers on Earth.
Brin did not want to say that none of these had actually happened and neither had I done. There is no evidence that he did – there is no spacecraft surrounded by old amber, there are no remains of a 200-million-year-old city – and certainly not putting money on it. But this is possible. [5 Bold Claims of Alien Life]
Probability 2: They're there but haven't found them yet.
As scientists and other rational thinkers often point out, the absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. We've never seen any signs (or existed) where clever aliens are there.
For example, ET did not visit the world because it is very difficult to come here. The distances in any interstellar trek are unbelievable. Proxima Centauri is only 4.2 light years from the sun. But this is almost 25 trillion mile – strap the world 1 billion times, go to Pluto and go back 3,450 times, or run around the track for 100 trillion times in local high school. Using today's rockets, the Proxima Centauri would take about 75,000 years of spacecraft to reach.
There are not enough honey roasted peanuts and Sudoku books to make this trip bearable in the world. Even if we assume that the aliens have developed super fast drive technique that makes our rickety human vehicles embarrassing, with their pulsed brains and exaggerated veins, they still have a big problem: energy. Starfleet engineers, like aliens, know how to build item-antimatter engines that can accelerate a ship's speed by up to 75 percent. Physicist Lawrence Krauss wrote that a World-Proxima Centauri tour in his book only required the United States to spend 100,000 times more energy. Physics of Star Trek. Is it really strong for aliens to question us or to give some Egyptian killer pyramid plans?
Or maybe ET just doesn't want to interfere with the development of life in other worlds – and Captain Kirk and his team, Star wars Universe. (When to Remember establishment The gang received an original set on its own in order to destroy the machine Vaal Vaal? Vaal looked like a jerk, but still.) The aliens are now watching us, watching our technological advancement, understanding how we cut it, or keeping their kids busy for a few hours.
Some thinkers take such reasoning a step further, suggesting that we and everything in the observable universe – yes, even love – can be part of a simulation on a very ornate alien computer. Think how cold it was before you laughed at it. Fortnit tomore Burger time. These two games were released only 35 years apart, and it has been billions of years for the hypothetical aliens to come up with incredible graphics and yet convincing stories. Indeed, philosopher Nick Bostrom advocated the odds we were trapped in. Matrix-style-pseudo-existence is actually quite high – there are countless numbers of super-advanced civilizations there and at least some of them are willing to create convincing virtual worlds, entertainment or profit. Given these two assumptions, the number of artificially created universes or universe patches will go well beyond the real numbers according to this line of thought.
In similar lines, the technical mastery of ET perhaps distanced its focus from the real world and the virtual space, disrupting the desire to discover the cosmos or meet its potential neighbors. (With the introduction of high-quality virtual reality pornography, humanity can be eaten to this fate.)
There are other reasons why advanced aliens keep their heads down. Self-preservation is plausible: if they refrain from being destroyed or enslaved by large-time cosmic strains like the Borg Star wars or Galactic Empire Star wars? Scientists have suggested that demonic aliens may have sent fleets of intelligent, self-replicating "crazy" probes to the galaxy to hunt radio transmissions and other intelligent life signs, and destroy the civilizations they find. [The Evolution of ‘Star Trek’ (Infographic)]
Dismantling is another possibility. Maybe these berserers destroyed too much on the eons. Or perhaps foreign civilizations tend to abandon themselves in a relatively short sequence. Humanity has recently arrived in a dangerous manner several times in a nuclear genocide, and recently we have encouraged a global mass extinction that could also claim our species. And yet, with all of this, we've only been able to send a signal to another star for a century.
If the 100 years of messaging life is a norm for civilizations, it seems gibi as if there were two fireflies firing twice in a long night each time, ateş says President of METI International, Douglas Vakoch on Sanbiology and SETI. dedicated to non-profit organization. (METI means extraterrestrial intelligence messaging – the controversial concept that humanity should only reach potential foreign civilizations rather than passively.)
These cosmic fireflies are also not likely to flash at the same time. It is a pity for them and it is a pity for any giant space monsters who want to catch them and put them in jars.
It is also possible for ET to try to attract our attention and we haven't noticed it yet. After all, humanity is looking for foreign transmission – less than 60 years – the last 0.000001 percent of world history – and always on a driving budget.
How to shoestring? Well, the US government has not set up a SETI operation for a quarter of a century. NASA started an ambitious observation project in 1992, but had to stop after a year when the Congress cut the money. The Nevada senator Richard Bryan, an advocate propellant leader, pictured SETI's efforts as a Mars safari for some reason. En The Great Martian Chase has finally come to an end, & said Bryan. It was spent, and I haven't even had a little green dude yet.
The SETI Institute and other similar groups often rely on private donations to keep the lights on and listen to telescopes. These donations don't always pass. The SETI Institute evacuated its main ear to the universe for four months in 2011 with the Allen Telescope Array, a forty-two dish in Northern California, and the original plan was comprised of 350 telescopes, but there it was En & # 39; There was enough money to complete the structure.
Given this situation and the large scale of the Milky Way galaxy, scientists have not yet been able to conduct a comprehensive SETI survey. They didn't even get close.
Tarter is usually based on a metaphor to achieve this point: imagine that you are looking for fish in all of the world's oceans, and you start surfing and gliding with a single glass of sea water. Tarter, "If you have done this experiment and your glass did not contain a fish, you can not conclude that it is probably not any fish." Said. ”Anyway, in numerical terms, the amount we're comparing is the equivalent of a glass of ocean.“
We may not even be looking for the right kind of signals. The SETI study to date has focused on radio waves and to a lesser degree of laser light pulses, because these are technologies known to humanity. But after a century we've already invented, we leave the radio wave transmission to ourselves; When was the last time you saw a picture of your TV crumpling a tin rabbit with rabbit ears? Is there really an alien civilization of millions of years communicating in this way, or do we understand it in any way? Perhaps ET, neutrinos, send messages through a myriad of strange and immortal particles that zoom into unobstructed planets, such as the subatomic Houdinis. (The trillions of solar neutrinos have passed through the body in time for the last sentence to be read.) Perhaps aliens are telepathic. Who knows?
According to astrologer Dirk Schulze-Makuch, professor at the Technical University of Berlin in Germany and an assistant professor at Arizona State University and Washington State University, our current strategy is similar to eavesdropping on people by radio.
Schulze-Makuch, "You probably won't get anything because everyone is on Facebook." Said.
As this discussion shows, many ideas to explain the paradox of Fermi point primarily to the ET psychology. And this is not the most promising way for a breakthrough: until we get into the minds of the super-advanced aliens, at least until we abandon most of our creative energies to the breast generation. (Thank you for this "getting out of the grass.")
Probability 3: Lonely
The last alternative is the most depressing: cosmic silence speaks volumes.
Maybe the world is the only inhabited world in the whole galaxy. God loves us so much! Or, if you want to get all the sciences on this subject, jumping from the complex organic chemicals to the dangling microbes can be as much as it would be, and we can hit the jackpot.
This may be a strain, given how fast life is in the world. Microbes were at least 3.8 billion years ago and maybe even earlier; Some evidence rejects the emergence of life 4.1 billion years ago immediately after the Earth has cooled down enough to be livable. But even though microbes are common throughout the cosmos, intelligent life can still be lost a little. (Astronomers and astrobiologists occasionally break compulsive jokes: or Hey, we're still looking for smart life in the world! Kır Or akal you won't find it in Capitol Hill! Cil) Why? Well, many planets can offer the long-term TLC, which is necessary for complexity and intelligence. For example, the Earth has a large moon that stabilizes its slope (and hence its climate), and strong gravity has the protection of a giant outer planet (Jupiter) that takes away some dangerous comets. Perhaps these features are rare for rocky worlds in the habitable region.
Also, forget about what might be the cartoons that show the monkeys moving towards a proud, trousers-wearing future; There is no "progress arrow" in the nature of evolution. Natural selection supports whatever it is, so if it is simple, it remains simple. Indeed, this was the story of most of the history of the world. Multicellular organisms are invisible in the fossil record until about 600 million years ago – that is, single-celled microbes found the planet themselves for at least 3 billion years. And super-smart animals – modern people – had a long gap before it appeared.
Therefore, it may be really very special to reach out to the point where they can stand out of their simple, disgusting origins and eventually invent radio transmitters, spaceships, shoes and other cool things. First of all, if this asteroid attack had not been 66 million years ago, the world would still have a reptile reptiles, even if mammals allowed our ancestors to go out of the shadows. [Images: Potentially Dangerous Asteroids]
There are other important things to keep in mind. For example, as the diversity of life in the world is evident, not all intelligence is the same. Chimpanzees, ravens, dolphins, sea otters, octopuses and a number of other species are smart enough to use tools, but only people have produced radio transmitters, spaceships, and footwear. (As far as we know. But if the chimpanzees had a shoe shoelace, you'd think Jane Goodall would say something.) We can't imagine that every intelligent alien species will be technologically intelligent or can communicate with us.
The conditions of their birth can cut highly intelligent aliens from the rest of the universe. If our own solar system is any guide, the worlds that support the most common life in the galaxy can be planets with icy shells and icy shells under the water-oceans – places such as Enceladus of Saturn and the Jupiter satellite such as Europa. If complex, intelligent life has evolved in these environments – and it is far from being a definite thing considering the energy depletion at dark depths – we will never hear from it.
"How long will the living beings last for a long time, discovering a vast universe beyond a world's seemingly insurmountable rooftops, limited by the pitch-dark habitats of a solid sky of hundreds of kilometers?" theoretical physicist Paul Davies wrote The Silence, 2010 book about Fermi paradox. Lu It's hard to imagine that they will leave their icy prisons and teleport their radio messages in space. "
You did it through the Fermi Paradox Hypothesis Sampler Plate! Did one of your ideas jump on you? Perhaps the ones that blackmailed you to violence and action, or buried-ocean inhabitants? (I cheer up, saddled mercreatures sadly strumming lutes picture.) If so, it should be pretty, but probably not more connected. We don't have enough information right now to know what's going on right now.
M I find it stupid that so many people jump into yelling,, Aha! I know the answer! . Brin said. "All we can do is catalog them for the time being, and maybe the" Ten Best ".
But we can start this answer, and soon. Scientists have discovered that they discovered a "second birth" of microbes – as far as we know, their tiny organisms that have nothing to do with any life – Mars, Enceladus, or another solar system institution. We know then that life is not a super lucky one-time relationship, and we suspect it is common all over the galaxy. This news, coupled with the silence of a SETI, will also suffer for all who care about the future of humanity, because it will argue that the bottleneck that limits the number of intelligent civilizations is still ahead of us. (However, it can be an advantage: if we think that we are the only technologically intelligent creatures in the galaxy, the resulting responsibility can provide the impulse that we don't need to destroy ourselves.)
With the same logic, it would be a real pick-me-up to get even a single SETI ping.
"The perception of a signal – even without a knowledge of a cosmic dial tone – continues to tell us that we have a long future," Tarter said. "If someone else has succeeded, we can do it."
you can do It Buy "Outside" on Amazon.com.
"EXCEPT: A quote from a Scientific Guide to Foreign Life, Antimatter and Human Space Travel (Cosmic Aspects)." Copyright © 2018, Michael Wall, PhD. Courtesy of Grand Central Publishing. All Rights Reserved.
Follow us I @Spacedotco or Facebook. published I Space.co.