Evolutionary scientists mistaken sexual behaviors of the same sex completely.
This is the meaning of a new study homosexual behavior in animals. Instead of asking why animals are involved in the same sex behavior (RCC), researchers say, "Why not?" The authors said.
If they are right, they may not have developed independently in different animals due to sexual dependence of the same sex. Instead, sex of the same sex may have emerged at a very early time and can simply go on, because to engage with it, if we talk evolutionarily, doesn't cost animals too much.
“Usually when evolutionary biologists see a trait that is really common among evolutionary strains, we think that at least the trait is ancestor and that it is preserved in all these strains, Jul said Julia Monk, PhD candidate at Yale University. wrote new research. Leyse So why didn't people think of this hypothesis for SSB? ”
About: Alternative Life in Wildlife
In evolutionary science, sexual behavior of the same sex has long been regarded as a hardship: why do animals spend their time and energy through their genes doing something sexual that they will not pass on to future generations? Nevertheless, sexual behavior of the same sex ranged from low pumpkin seed beetles to humans, at least 1,500 species.
(To avoid anthropomorphization, researchers do not use the terms "gay", "heterosexual", "gay", or "straight" to refer to animal behavior.)
"We cannot assign sexuality to animals – We are trying to do our best to learn about them by observing their behavior, "Monk told Live Science." And these behaviors should not be matched with human cultural and social contexts. "
The assumption that all this should be an evolutionary cause for gay sex has led researchers to look for possible benefits to gay behavior. For example, in humans, researchers think that having a gay son or brother is related to a woman have more offspring in total. Other studies have shown that sexual behavior of the same sex is a side effect. other genes Reproductive benefits.
In evolutionary biology, an animal's ability to replicate relative to its environment is called. Monk and his colleagues published in the journal on November 18th, it is entirely possible that sex of the same sex can benefit from some form of gender fitness. Nature Ecology and Evolution. However, these evolutionary benefits may not be necessary for the emergence of sexual behaviors of the same sex.
Instead, imagine that the earliest breeding animals attempt to match all members of their species, regardless of gender. This could be a logical path to evolution, because all the bells and whistles that separate males from females are costly to evolve energetically. Therefore, any effort to match the same gender will be compensated for by spending and developing a distinctly conserving energy. secondary gender characteristicsLike different colors, smells and behaviors. The authors argued that all of these gender-distinguishing features could come later in the evolutionary chain.
In this formulation, sexual behavior of the same sex and of different sex would have begun on an equal basis at the beginning of animal evolution. This may explain why the same sex gender is so widespread in the animal kingdom: it did not evolve many times independently, but was part of the fabric of animal evolution from the beginning.
The new hypothesis underscores old assumptions about the same sex behavior, says Caitlin McDonough, a PhD candidate and co-author at Syracuse University. Most studies on these sexual behaviors assume that sex of the same sex is expensive for animals and sex of different sexes is not expensive.
Don You need to review these assumptions and test the costs and benefits of both behaviors in a system, Mc McDonough said.
Monk said that the fact that behaviors of the same sex are back to the roots of animal evolution make sense.
Anız If you assume that a feature like SSB is a new development and has high costs, it will be really hard to understand how it has become more common than these low start frequencies, ”he said. "For this outcome to be possible, it must have really great fitness advantages or be unaffected by natural selection.
“On the other hand, if you assume that a trait belongs to ancestors and is common in the beginning and has low costs, it is more likely that it will remain widespread to this day, even if it does not contribute much to fitness. "
One evidence supporting this hypothesis is that some echinoderms, including starfish and sea urchins, are sexually active. The Echinoderms evolved earlier in life history, possibly 545 million years ago, probably in the Precambrian.
However, other evidence is rather weak, as scientists have not systematically studied the same sex sexual behavior in animals. Monk said most of the observations were random, and biologists were indifferent or inappropriate between two animals of the same gender. Sometimes, researchers automatically assume that the same sex behavior is not really about sex, but rather about domination or attachment. If McDonough often observes that two animals are having sex, they are assumed to be male and female without any confirmatory evidence.
Bilim The science we do is really aware and influenced by cultural prejudices, ”he said.
Thinking of same sex sexual behavior as a standard part of the animal repertoire will change the researchers' approach to their work on the evolution of these behaviors. Monk said the next step would be to collect more data on the prevalence of the same sex behavior in animals. Then, researchers can compare species in the tree of life to determine whether all edges show the same gender behavior. So it reinforces the argument that sexuality of the same sex is part of life for all the ancestors of today's sexually reproducing animals.
Originally published Live Science.