Tuesday , May 17 2022

Local weather exchange likely triggered migration, the collapse of the historic Indus Valley civilization [Report]



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More than 4000 years ago, Harappa culture, modern Pakistan and northwestern India, which today invented modern Pakistan and northwestern India, invented sewerage systems in front of ancient Rome, and engaged in long-distance trade with settlements in Mesopotamia. It grew up in the Valley of the Indus River. . But in 1800, this advanced culture had migrated to small villages on the outskirts of the Himalayan by abandoning their cities. A new study from the Woods Hole Oceanography Institute (WHOI) has proven that climate change has been carried out to avoid the outrage of the Harappas by Indus.


Starting from about 2500 BCE, a change in temperature and weather conditions on the Indus valley caused Monsoon rains to dry slowly, causing agriculture to become difficult or impossible in Harappan cities, says Liviu Giosan, a geologist in WHOI. published in the journal on November 13, 2018 Climate of the Past.

Iyor Although the missile summer monsoons make agriculture more difficult along the Indus, on top of the skirts, moisture and rain become more regular,, says Giosan. Ve When the winter storms from the Mediterranean crashed into the Himalayas, it rained on Pakistan and there was very little flow. Compared to floods from monsoons they used to see on the Indus, there would be relatively little water, but at least it would be reliable. "

It is difficult to find evidence of the transition to the rainfall of water plants near Himalaya, relying on this change in seasonal precipitation and the Harumah's Indus floods. Therefore, Giosan and his team focused on the ocean floor sediments on the shores of Pakistan. After taking the core samples at various locations in the Arabian Sea, he and his group studied the single-celled plankton foraminifera (or ton forams tek) shells that he found in the sediments, helping them to understand what species grew in the summer. which in winter.

After he and the team determined the season based on the fossil remains of the foramas, they managed to focus on deeper clues for the climate of the region: paleo-DNA, fragments of the ancient genetic material preserved in the sediments.

Çok The sea floor next to Indus's mouth is a very low oxygen environment, so everything that grows and dies in the water is very well preserved in the sediment, & Giosan says. ”You can basically get parts of DNA from almost everything that lives there.“

During the winter monsoon, he states that strong winds bring nutrients from the deeper ocean that feeds a surge in plant and animal life. Likewise, in other times of the year, weaker winds provide less nutrients, resulting in less productivity on the high seas.

Ver The value of this approach is that it gives you a picture of past biodiversity that you'll miss based on skeletal remains or fossil records. And since we can sort billions of DNA molecules in parallel, it gives a very high resolution picture of how the ecosystem changes over time, Ve he says. William Orsi, paleontologist and geobiologist from Ludwig Maximilian University, who collaborated with Giosan during his studies.

Based on the evidence from the DNA, the couple found that the winter monsoons had become stronger and that the summer monsoons were weaker, and that the Harappan civilization later corresponded to the move from towns to villages.

Ere We don't know if the Harappan caravans have been moving for months, or they've been moving for centuries. What we know is that, when it ended, the urban lifestyles ended, Giosan said.

The rains in the skirts seemed to be enough to hold the Harapans in the countryside for the next millennium, but eventually they would continue to dry out and even contribute to their final destruction.

“We cannot say that they are completely destroyed by the climate. At the same time, Indian-Aryan culture came to the region with Iron Age vehicles and horses and cars. But the winter monsoon is likely to play a role, un says Giosan.

Giosan, one of the great surprises of the research, shows how much root the climate has taken its roots. At that time, there was a; new age of ice # that pushed the cooler air towards the Atlantic from the Arctic to northern Europe. This reduced the storms to the Mediterranean and led to an increase in winter monsoons over the Indus valley.

Or It's worth considering, and it's a powerful lesson for today, “he says. Ir If you look at Syria and Africa, the migration of these areas has some roots in climate change. This is just the beginning – sea level rise due to climate change can lead to large migrations from lowlands, such as Bangladesh, or from areas prone to hurricanes in the south. At that time, the Harappan could have moved to change, but today, you will enter into all kinds of borders. Political and social strife can be followed later. "

Chirp

More than 4000 years ago, Harappa culture, modern Pakistan and northwestern India, which today invented modern Pakistan and northwestern India, invented sewerage systems in front of ancient Rome, and engaged in long-distance trade with settlements in Mesopotamia. It grew up in the Valley of the Indus River. . But in 1800, this advanced culture had migrated to small villages on the outskirts of the Himalayan by abandoning their cities. A new study from the Woods Hole Oceanography Institute (WHOI) has proven that climate change has been carried out to avoid the outrage of the Harappas by Indus.

Starting from about 2500 BCE, a change in temperature and weather conditions on the Indus valley caused Monsoon rains to dry slowly, causing agriculture to become difficult or impossible in Harappan cities, says Liviu Giosan, a geologist in WHOI. published in the journal on November 13, 2018 Climate of the Past.

Iyor Although the missile summer monsoons make agriculture more difficult along the Indus, on top of the skirts, moisture and rain become more regular,, says Giosan. Ve When the winter storms from the Mediterranean crashed into the Himalayas, it rained on Pakistan and there was very little flow. Compared to floods from monsoons they used to see on the Indus, there would be relatively little water, but at least it would be reliable. "

It is difficult to find evidence of the transition to the rainfall of water plants near Himalaya, relying on this change in seasonal precipitation and the Harumah's Indus floods. Therefore, Giosan and his team focused on the ocean floor sediments on the shores of Pakistan. After taking the core samples at various locations in the Arabian Sea, he and his group studied the single-celled plankton foraminifera (or ton forams tek) shells that he found in the sediments, helping them to understand what species grew in the summer. which in winter.

After he and the team determined the season based on the fossil remains of the foramas, they managed to focus on deeper clues for the climate of the region: paleo-DNA, fragments of the ancient genetic material preserved in the sediments.

Çok The sea floor next to Indus's mouth is a very low oxygen environment, so everything that grows and dies in the water is very well preserved in the sediment, & Giosan says. ”You can basically get parts of DNA from almost everything that lives there.“

During the winter monsoon, he states that strong winds bring nutrients from the deeper ocean that feeds a surge in plant and animal life. Likewise, in other times of the year, weaker winds provide less nutrients, resulting in less productivity on the high seas.

Ver The value of this approach is that it gives you a picture of past biodiversity that you'll miss based on skeletal remains or fossil records. And since we can sort billions of DNA molecules in parallel, it gives a very high resolution picture of how the ecosystem changes over time, Ve he says. William Orsi, paleontologist and geobiologist from Ludwig Maximilian University, who collaborated with Giosan during his studies.

Based on the evidence from the DNA, the couple found that the winter monsoons had become stronger and that the summer monsoons were weaker, and that the Harappan civilization later corresponded to the move from towns to villages.

Ere We don't know if the Harappan caravans have been moving for months, or they've been moving for centuries. What we know is that, when it ended, the urban lifestyles ended, Giosan said.

The rains in the skirts seemed to be enough to hold the Harapans in the countryside for the next millennium, but eventually they would continue to dry out and even contribute to their final destruction.

“We cannot say that they are completely destroyed by the climate. At the same time, Indian-Aryan culture came to the region with Iron Age vehicles and horses and cars. But the winter monsoon is likely to play a role, un says Giosan.

Giosan, one of the great surprises of the research, shows how much root the climate has taken its roots. At that time, there was a; new age of ice # that pushed the cooler air towards the Atlantic from the Arctic to northern Europe. This reduced the storms to the Mediterranean and led to an increase in winter monsoons over the Indus valley.

Or It's worth considering, and it's a powerful lesson for today, “he says. Ir If you look at Syria and Africa, the migration of these areas has some roots in climate change. This is just the beginning – sea level rise due to climate change can lead to large migrations from lowlands, such as Bangladesh, or from areas prone to hurricanes in the south. At that time, the Harappan could have moved to change, but today, you will enter into all kinds of borders. Political and social strife can be followed later. "

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