oneWe are commemorating the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 2018 and the 100th anniversary of the end of the First World War. However, this is the best approach: the worst is the deliberate diversion of a terrible truth, which does not end at once or even within that month. Rather, it has been repelled for years and months in some places. Worse, as seen at a probe, the commanders continued to send thousands of young men to their deaths because of their rather embarrassing motifs against modern sensitivities. To avenge a defeat. To provide a medal or promotion. To access a warm bathroom Sıcak
The modern narrative of a regular and orderly end is myth, next to the smooth and regular History 101 version of the First World War. It began in August 1914. Or not. Football on the territory of men. The 1915 campaign of the Gallipoli campaign. 1916 dated, malicious Somme attack. Asquith, he resigned. Russia collapses as we join 1917. 1961 Ludendorff Attack, Germany tired. Last: November 1918.
Sort. A little scatter around the edges A single article entitled ”Lions led by donkeys: debate ler can be blackmailed.
Other than that, it did not start at once: The first players listed their first three months or after the 1914 August, who had fought against whom, and as the war continued, the countries entered and exited as in a cocktail. Party. Italy waited until May 1915, before declaring the Austro-Hungarian war: a few weeks later, followed by the small San Marino.
Honduras, waited until July 1918, then the wind was blowing in which direction was quite clear. This solidarity with the United States, which declared war a year ago, did not work well for Honduran president Francisco Bertrand. Many German people living in the country have upset them and in 1919 they dealt with their political opponents and dismissed them.
Countries met at different times in peace and fled from the war as their economies collapsed. Governments have fallen. Europe changed the old order throughout.
Russia was the first and most important departure. A moderate revolution in March 1917, as a result of economic collapse and food ration, over the centuries abolished the tsarist tradition. And when the moderates failed to secure the promised peace, the second communist revolution led to a hasty truce and exit in December 1917.
In August 1916, the Allied side of Romania, which had entered the war, overthrew Romania. But without the regional ally Russia, the chances of resisting against Germany were very low. In May 1918, Romania decided to end its role in the war in the Bucharest Treaty. This was never approved, but was condemned by the Romanian government, and Romania re-entered the war in October 1918.
Bulgaria sought time in September 30, 1918. Turkey and Austria-Hungary, respectively, 30 October and November 3, 1918 & # 39; they also give a truce between them; they were both exhausted and could no longer continue to prosecute the war. For both, the end of the war meant the end of the historic empire: Austria soon after the Hapsburg Empire; In the next few years for the Turkish Ottoman Empire.
The writing was on the wall of Germany. From the beginning, the nightmare scenario had to fight on two fronts. Therefore, they devised the Schlieffen Plan, which forged a rapid pounding against France in the west before dealing with Russia in the east. It almost worked: his failure meant leaving on the west side and bloody attrition for four years.
The collapse of Russia in 1917 was good news. This was offset by the US entry into the war in April of that year. Still, there was still hope, if the Germans could distribute a knockout blow to France and the United Kingdom before any number of Americans were deployed.
Thus, in March 1918, they attempted to throw a mold: Mart Spring Aggression Böylece. They could have succeeded once again, but the Allies were kept. German progress was halted in July 1918; August 8 was recorded as di The Dark Day of the German Army kara, followed and ended now. On the other hand, as wars emerged from the trenches, the Allies sometimes gained miles of land at one time.
US troops, known as u troops, ”were coming to France today at 10,000 per day. The insistence on acting independently by commander general John Pershing meant that they received more casualties than they had. But nothing can change the basic narrative.
The tired and hungry German army was beginning to disintegrate. When we returned home, the revolution was brewed. German sailors in Wilhelmshaven and Kiel were massacred. It's time to save everything that could be saved. The army must return home in order to prevent the disintegration of their countries: peace was compulsory at all costs.
On Thursday, November 7, a series of white-flag cars approached the French front near La Capelle. This was a civil peace delegation sent by the German government and led by Matthias Erzberger. Behind allied lines, the delegation accompanied a railroad siding in Compiegne and the personal train car of Marshal Foch, the supreme commander of the allied armies.
Foch, however, was not in any case to make concessions. France suffered the death of some 6 million people, of which 1.7 million died. He had lost a son and his son-in-law. His first words to the delegation were sharp: “What do you want from me? Yap he does not have an interview.
A meeting was held for the next day: After that, the Germans took 72 hours to accept the extremely harsh conditions. Erzberger's proposal for an emergency ceasefire was rejected. Foch gave very little: the very remaining helpless government was ordered to accept any condition in Erzberger.
According to modern sensibilities, it seems cruel that this cease-fire refuses to face negotiations. On November 3rd, the Austrians decided to take a cease-fire to take effect the next day. However, the high command of Austria-Hungary ordered all forces to stop fighting on the same day.
On the western front, an average of 2,250 soldiers were killed every day. On November 9, Canadian forces attacked Mons, under the command of General Sir Arthur Curry, on November 11th. The deaths were light: only 280 people were killed and injured. Nevertheless, it is doubtful that this action was less motivated by strategic considerations, rather than the fact that Mons was one of the allies' first major defeat of the war.
The curry was not alone. The men along the Meuse river were determined to continue their fight at the last moment, many of them including the US general Charles Summerall, who ordered against the machine guns on the night of November 11th.
If it is difficult to understand such a deliberate negligence against human life, then it cannot do anything other than anger when the ceasefire is held. The ceasefire document was signed on 11 November at 05.00 am (or 5.03 or 5.10, depending on the source) and at 11:00 am.
This was a time when the news floated to the front, giving people time to get back home. Celebrations began in the capitals around the world until 5.40. In London, Big Ben was printed for the first time since the start of the war: in Paris, gas lamps were burned; and people in New York went out on the streets to burn pots and pans.
For the tens of thousands of soldiers on the western front, however, this was the usual job for a few hours. Local commanders were informed that the struggle would stop at 11; however, they had to decide what to do next. Some decided not to risk their lives for the regions they would walk to tomorrow. The others continued until the last second.
According to the Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC), 863 deputies died on 11 November 1918. For all the numbers mentioned here, those days include those who died from previous injuries – but not later deaths. The result of the actions of that day. The CWGC was killed in the First World War in the First World War as the Fifth Royal Irish Lancer's Special George Edwin Ellison, just 90 minutes before the cease-fire in Mons, at 9.30 & # 39; He was killed.
The last French soldier died, Augustine Trebuchon from the 415th Infantry Regiment. He was a soldier, shot at 10.50 with a single shot, and a message was given to the other soldiers informing them about the ceasefire. At least 75 French soldiers died on November 11, however, for unknown reasons – perhaps a political scandal – graves on 10 November.
The last Canadian and recent Commonwealth military, dying in the First World War, was George Lawrence Price, a Canadian infantry killed in Mons in 10.58.
American losses were particularly high on the last day of the war: at least 3,000 in D-Day in 1944, exceeding the total US losses. It can be associated with the last coming and war spirit, in which both war and horror are not blunted. In addition to the very public view of Commander General John Pershing, only the serious military defeats of the Germans kam would teach them a lesson Komut.
Pershing saw the cease-fire conditions as soft against the Germans. Therefore, he supported the commanders who wanted to be proactive in attacking German positions even after the signing of the ceasefire.
The decision by General Summerall to hand over his troops to Meuse resulted in the US naval forces seizing more than 1,100 casualties, unhindered and without any loss of life. After the fight was over, it was recorded, Summerall visited the view of the battle to take a picture – and then rode again.
A disturbing event was the commitment to war in the last hours of the 92th war. This was a black army officer, mostly led by white officers. Another bad decision? Perhaps racism in the US army was a myth. Black units were rarely used in 1925 when white volumes reflecting the emotions of General Robert Bullard, which he wrote in his memoirs: anıl Poor negroes! They're desperate. "
Regardless of the reasons, he was acquitted in a good way by taking 190 (unnecessary) casualties in the last hours of the 92nd war. No matter how awful, General Wright's decision to order 89. to take Stenay town on the morning of November 11 is untouched. Because, he explained, he heard about the bathroom facilities in the town and wanted his men to have access to hot water.
Stenay was the last city caught on the western front and cost more than 300 casualties. Then there was the fate of 81. A regiment commander ordered his men to protect him in the last hour. His orders were out of control and he was ordered to iler advance one at a time ”to continue the 40-minute war. Result: 66 killed 461 missing.
Official figures show 10,944 casualties on the last morning of the war, killing 2,738 people. But the horrors of these hours – and sad – lie not only in the headlines, but also in the touch of individual stories.
The last American soldier was killed in the 313th Private Henry Gunther. He was ordered to pick up a German machine-gun post in 16 minutes for him to leave: According to his commanders' opinion, he was not allowed until 11:00. Gunther fulfilled orders. Machine gunners shook her back. But Gunther continued. The machine gunmen fired: Gunther died – 10.59. According to the cleavage record: sessiz The gunfire died and a terrible silence reigned almost where it fell. Korkunç
A recent introduction by a German private diary expresses amazement that he will not come home after 50 months on the front line. A few minutes later, he did not survive the assault of US soldiers who were attacked. Another, an American infantry, wrote home about his love to say that he would marry when he came back. He never did.
The last casualty of the war was a German that came close to telling a group of Americans, a group of Americans, that their troops had retreated and that they and their men could leave their homes. But nobody told them the war wasn't over. So Tomas walked towards them. Inevitably, people asked why.
The reason was confused. In part, the desire to continue fighting reflected the strategic views of some of the commanders. With a single account, the cease-fire on November 8 will have 6,624 lives and 14,895 cripples, burned and deformed. Still, there was a common belief shared by Pershing; It was seen that Germany should not only lose, but lose, or another war could come.
As the time puts it: ı If they gave us 10 more days. “The same feeling is expressed even more graphically by a certain Harry S Truman, a artillery captain who wrote his house to his fiancée: cut off some of the children's hands and feet and cut out some of their old men. "
As he could not tell, there was some justice in Pershing's opinion. As soon as the war was over, the ara standing in the back & myth began to spread and created a great throne supporting Adolf Hitler's rise to power.
There were reasons to continue the struggle until a ceasefire was made. But the idea that the Allies could lead Berlin was rejected by General Sir Frederick Maurice's postwar post-war statement. Last Four MonthsPublished in 1919.
Yes, he said: There was a will to continue. However, he argues that allied supply lines are over-extended and that almost all transport infrastructure between Berlin and the front lines has been destroyed, or that sabotaging the Germans is no longer possible.
It is another matter that Pershing does not direct the generals to end the war. There was no use in fighting for more than six hours, and thousands of people were so derelict because of this life.
Beyond being strategic, two years ago Somme had a wider disloyalty, indifference, bloody mindedness outlined in the words of a British corps commander: bir Men are very eager to save their skin. They must be taught to do their work. Whether it is alive or not, it is a matter of complete indifference. "
The public asked for clarification in the United States. After the peace, a congressional investigation was held about why so many died: Despite the fact that Pershing didn't do anything more than following Foch's orders, the first result decided that unnecessary massacres took place and that their decisions were made by men who were their own lives. he gave. it was never risked. But then politicians condemned the report as patriots: they fell into fouls of party politics, and in March 1920 all the unnecessary losses were prevented.
And after all, the war was not over by November 11th. On the western front, the fight stopped. And the conditions of the ceasefire were not meant to continue at all. However, the ceasefire was repeated several times in the following months. Moreover, the war (with Germany) did not officially end until the Treaty of Versail, signed on June 28, 1919, the official end date of the First World War.
The official division of the First World War, along with the emergence of this dispute, included 40 million military and civilian casualties: 20 million dead and 21 million wounded. But that's part of the story.
In other places, especially in the wars in Eastern Europe, the Great War is killing and injuring hundreds of thousands of people. The total demolition of the infrastructure left all populations vulnerable to more natural erosion than disease and hunger. 1918 was also marked by the lend Spanish Influenza ı outbreak that killed more than 50 million people worldwide: the full contribution of the war to this outcome was undetectable, of course.
There are still weeks and months for those who have been injured recently and before. Many of them were scarred as permanent deterioration or disability of life. When Matthias Erzberger signed the armistice and helped end such suffering, he was condemned as a traitor and was killed by two former naval officers as they walked through the Black Forest in August 1921.
If you would like to know more about the events of the last day of the First World War, read: The Eleventh Day, The Eleventh Day, The Twelfth Hour: The Day of Armistice, The World War I and the Seventeen Summits, paperback, Joseph E Persico