As a construct, antibodies are immunoglobulins belonging to classes A, M, G, D, E and are targeted to N, M, E and S proteins.
The coronavirus encodes the genome 4 main structural proteins: protein N (nucleocapsid), which is the core of the virus containing viral RNA, protein M (membrane), protein E (viral envelope) and protein S (spike), the surface protein structure trimerice, which gives a “crown” appearance.
Antibodies specific for SARS-CoV-2 virus infection: IgM and IgG
Until now Only three classes of antibodies have been studied in the dynamics of the immune response. usually induced by viruses: type A, M and G antibodies According to MedLife experts, the role of IgA type antibodies for coronaviruses and specifically for SARS-CoV-2 is not fully understood. IgM and IgG antibodies have been studied since the beginning of the outbreak and with the development of laboratory tests:
- IgM Immunoglobulin M is a type of antibody produced by the immune system immediately after infection. During viral infections, the immune system is on the first line of defense before producing IgG-type antibodies.
- IgG Immunoglobulins are highly specific antibodies important for long-lasting immunity and immune memory.
It is now known that there is a significant difference in both their level and chronology of the appearance of these antibodies. If the first antibodies to appear for most viruses were of the IgM type, it is much more common for SARS CoV-2 to appear and persist at about the same time of two antibody classes (IgM and IgG).
What are anti-protein N (nucleocapsid) and anti-protein S (spike) antibodies?
Protein N (nucleocapsid), protein, which encapsulates viral RNA and protects it from the host cell environment. In addition to its protective role, the N protein has the role of mediating the transcription of the viral genome, which is essential in viral replication. This protein is strongly immunogenic, antibodies against it are an important serological marker in accentuating the immune response against viral infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
The structure of the S protein (Spike) is extremely complex. There is two subunits that enable the virus to attach to the cell, enter the virus into the cell and fuse with the host cell. In other words, the structure of the Spike protein provides a significant number of highly antigenic regions that determine antibodies, respectively neutralizing antibodies, that prevent the virus from binding and entering the host cell.
Likewise, despite the evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the body’s antibody response has not been demonstrated by any commercially available test, i.e. people who do not “develop antibodies”.
Information provided by the presence of any of the anti-N or anti-S antibodies, whether IgG or IgM class, even if asymptomatic or common symptoms, when and when SARS-CoV-2 infection.
How can the presence of anti-protein N and anti-protein S antibodies be detected in the blood?
- Test antibody IgM anti-S – Recommended qualitative test for vaccinated people who are unsure of their COVID-19 disease.
- Test Anticropi IgG anti-N – Recommended qualitative test for unvaccinated people who are unsure of their COVID-19 disease.
- Test antibody IgG anti-S – Recommended quantitative test for vaccinated people who are unsure of their COVID-19 disease.
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