Wednesday , December 2 2020

What is the Bosscha Observatory?



West Bandung Regency, Bosscha Observatory located in Lembang, West Java, is not a tourist attraction, it is a private education and research institution.

However, many requests for recognition of astronomy encouraged the largest observatory in Indonesia to be opened to the public.

In 1923, according to the Deputy Chief of Staff Bosscha Denny Mandey, by the observatory of the School of Mathematics and Sciences under the auspices of the Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB). Nederlandsch-Indische Sterrenkundige Vereeniging or the Association of Observers of the Dutch East Indies in 1923 to further the science of astronomy in the Dutch East Indies.

Construction began with the request of Dutch astronomers who were born in Madiun. J. Voute created a space research center on Java.

Good fortune later brought together with the gardener Karel Albert Rudolf Bosscha of Malabar garden master who was interested in her science.

Voute later described his dream of building an astronomical observation and research center, and Bosscha welcomed him in his support.

In 1923 KAR became a pioneer and assistant of the Bosscha observatory. He also bought Zeiss Double Refractor Telescope and Bamberg Refractor Telescope with his colleagues.

Architect K. CP Wolf Schoemacher, President Soekarno's teacher Technische Hoogeschool te Bandoeng Designing buildings of the observatory (Bandung Institute of Technology).

Denny said that observatory construction was done carefully and carefully, taking into account the geometric calculations of the Lembang fault.

Bulunur As Lembang is an area prone to earthquake, it also refers to the geological map when determining its location. And the place of the Bosscha is on the edge of the Lembang fault. This hill consists of rocks covered with earth and tends to be more determined. La

The construction of the observatory was completed in 1928. The observatory was designated as an object of cultural heritage by the government in 2004 and its existence was protected by Law No. 2/1992 on Cultural Heritage Objects.

In 2008, the government also established the Bosscha Observatory as one of the national vital objects to be secured.

12 Telescope

The Bosscha Observatory, now 90, has 12 telescopes with different functions, as well as large binoculars inside the giant dome, which visitors often see.

Only six of the 12 telescopes were actively used for research activities. The rest are used for educational purposes only.

The six telescopes used for research are the GAO Remote Telescope System Telescope.

The Celestron Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope has an eight-inch mirror diameter (approx. 20 cm). In a room with a sliding roof, the telescope can observe the southern cross-like appearance of other hemispheres, such as Japan and the US. Usually these are used for telescopes, spectroscopy or other objects such as planet nebulae, supernovas, comets and stars.

"We are working with the Japanese Observatory for our research. We share data, especially sky views. Japan cannot see the southern sky and we cannot observe the sky in the northern hemisphere," says Observcha Bosscha staff, Agus Triono, GAO telescope.

Next telescope Survey Telescope for Exoplanet and Variable Stars or STEVia, Schmidt-Cassegrain type reflector telescope with a main mirror diameter of 27.9 cm and a focal length of 1.76 meters.

STEVia is equipped with a telescope guider It serves to maintain the stability of the movement of the main telescope, so that it can follow the celestial object for a long time.

Telescopes with computerized control systems that can be controlled remotely via this internet network are used to find new planets.

Denny Mandey explained that the new Bosscha was binoculars in 2014 to look for planets in this star cluster.

He explained that the signs of the star can be seen from the glow of light. If the star light goes out suddenly, it could be a planet going through.

Mi The principle is like seeing a dim light, isn't it? We see, if lucky later, the planets are passing by. Another way to see the star is quiet or shaking. If it shows symptoms like stars, Eğer he said. ,

STEVia is also used to observe short celestial bodies and events, such as supernova and star blockages.

The Bosscha also features a Solar Telescope with three Coronado telescopes with three filters and a fully self-propelled projection telescope.

The Solar Telescope is used to observe activities on the surface of the sun, especially the sunspots and languages ​​(prominesa). Research on solar activity is very important because it deals with the climate of the earth, the operational satellites, the communication channels, and the space air that affects aviation security.

Denny also briefly explained the sun's life cycle to date. According to him, currently people are experiencing the sun shade about 4.5 billion years.

Next research telescope Robotic Bosscha Telescope. This telescope is the newest telescope in the Bosscha Observatory.

In general, this telescope is used for research, surveys and detection of planets in other stars. Telescopes are also often used to investigate periodic investigations and observations of intermittent asteroids and variable stars close to the Earth.

The telescope-mounted telescope can operate fully automatically and adapt to the sky conditions and the environment. Robotic telescopes can be controlled remotely using an internet connection.

The Bosscha also has a Bamberg Telescope, 37 cm in diameter and a refractory type with a focal length of seven meters. The scope of this telescope is limited to the observation of celestial bodies with distances of 60 degrees in the East-South-West sector, or by observation of celestial bodies higher than 30 degrees.

With this telescope, the sky objects in the north sky or the azimuths of the East-North-West sector cannot be reached.

Bamberg binoculars are used to observe the photometry of star eclipses, such as the light curve of variable stars, as well as the observation of the delta-Capricorni double star curve. Binoculars are also used to observe the sun and moon surface.

Currently the second largest telescope in the Bosscha Observatorim has not been used for research, because there are new binoculars with more advanced technology.

Still, Bamberg is still used for public education, for example evening nights, visual double stars, star clusters, planets and other celestial bodies for public evenings to see directly through binoculars.

Another Bosscha telescope, the Zeiss Dual Telescope. This 60 cm Zeiss double telescope is the only domed building in the Bosscha Observatory, which became a landmark in northern Bandung.

Compared to other telescopes, people will recognize the binoculars in this large dome. Many people think that this telescope is Bosscha binoculars.

This telescope is a refractory type (uses a lens) and consists of two main telescopes and a search telescope. The diameter of the main telescope is 60 cm with a focal length of about 11 meters and the diameter of the search telescope is 40 cm.

The viewpoint of the search telescope is 1.5 degrees or approximately three times the image diameter of the full moon. This vast celestial field of view facilitates the identification of the star to be observed in the sky in a star map compared to the image of a star.

This telescope can observe stars that are weaker at 100,000 times weaker light than stars visible to the naked eye.

Zeiss dual binoculars are specially designed to observe certain celestial bodies, such as visual double stars, and about 10,000 visual double star observation data obtained using the Zeiss telescope to date have been collected.

Telescopes are also used for star parallax measurements to determine the distance of the stars.

The binocular dome building was designed by architect K. C. P. Wolf Schoemacher. The dome of the building is 14.5 meters in diameter and weighs 56 tons and is made of two mm thick steel.

The telescope and dome building was officially donated from the Bosscha in June 1928, which was officially delivered to the Astronomical Association of the Dutch East Indies.

Challenge

The large construction of the hotels, settlements and tourist areas in the north of Bandung shows that the presence of the Bosscha Observatory brings more light pollution and that research will not be suitable for decades.

Light pollution limited the observation distance. Stars or galaxies that can be seen in the southern marksmanship group are prevented by splashing and breaking of light pollution.

Görev Even if our task is still a slight pollution, our function is still the same. Pre Said.

Through the ITB team, Bosscha tried to understand an environment that argued that light bounced into space and used it, not to enlighten the environment. protected lighting,

Premana is concerned that the lack of strict rules for the use of lights can create the whole sky in Indonesia, in big cities, which cannot see the tension of billions of stars.

Lar I'm afraid they ask the children how many stars, they answer three. It is a pity that the beauty of the sky cannot be seen by the successors of our generation. Bu

The conditions at which Bosscha Observatory could not fulfill its function led the government to build an observatory in Timau Mountain, Kupang Regency, East Nusa Tenggara Province. The observatory in the Timau Mountain is estimated to be the largest in Southeast Asia.

Read also: Lapan will build a national observation house in Kupang

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Editor: Maryati
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