Is it taking fish oil or vitamin D? Large studies give long-awaited answers to who these beneficiaries are benefiting from and not benefiting from.
Fish oil, taken by healthy individuals, showed no clear ability to reduce the risk of heart or cancer in a number of supplements. Same for vitamin D.
However, high amounts of a purified, prescription fish oil reduced heart problems and heart-related deaths among people with high triglyceride blood problems and other heart-related risks. The doctors excited the results and said they could offer a new treatment option for hundreds of thousands of patients.
Fish oil is taken to 10 percent of US adults. Despite the great work to support many health demands made for this, take more of vitamin D.
Katıl Those who push it encourage something as a good thing for everything, Madison but in this definitive test, vitamin D didn't show anything big, her says Dr. James Stein, a heart specialist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. they did not have a role in their work or relationships.
The results were published on Saturday at an American Heart Association conference in Chicago and published by the New England Journal of Medicine.
About fish oil
These oils, also called Omega-3 fatty acids, are found in salmon, tuna and some other fish. They reduce triglycerides and inflammation and may have other effects. There are different types, including EPA and DHA.
One study, 4 grams per day Amarin Corp. tested the EPA concentration in a patient with prescribed Vascepa, who had more than 8,000 patients with high triglyceride and with larger heart problems for various reasons. They were already using a statin like Lipitor or Zocor to lower cholesterol. Half of Vascepa and the rest, mineral oil capsules were compared.
Five years later, about 17 percent of those in Vascepa experienced one of these problems: heart attack, stroke, heart-related death, or clogged arteries requiring medical care – 22 percent of others.
This led to a 25 percent reduction in risk. All in all, heart attack, heart related deaths and strokes were lower with Vascepa. "21 people will have to take Vascepa to avoid being one of the main problems of working for five years," Stein said.
Side effects may be alarming: more people in Vascepa were hospitalized for irregular heartbeats – 2 percent of the comparison group with 3 percent. Doctors say this is surprising because other research shows that fish oil reduces this risk.
The concern about the heart rhythm problem is that it can increase the risk of a stroke, but there was less stroke between Vascepa, says Brigham, and research leader at the Women's Hospital in Boston.
Vascepa is around $ 280 per month; Many insurance companies cover it. Amarin has sponsored the study and some working leaders are working or consulting for the company.
In another study, 26,000 people who had not previously had heart problems or cancer were tested for a different dose of fish oil – an EPA / DHA and a generic form – 1 gram lower, sold as Lovaza or Omacor.
About five years later, the rates of combined heart attack, stroke, and other problems were similar for fish oil users and a comparison group. Cancer rates and deaths were similar.
The fish oil group had fewer heart attacks – in the comparison group 145 versus 200. Working leader Brigham and Women in the Dr. JoAnn Manson was described as iyle an important benefit lar, but many independent experts disagreed on the grounds that the study was created to monitor these and some other results.
Dr. Cleveland Clinic. "These findings are speculative and must be confirmed in a separate trial," Steven Nissen said.
Both studies share a problem: the oils used for comparison groups, even if they are not the actual placebo. In the Vascepa study, mineral oil was used, which interfered with statin drugs, increased cholesterol, and worsened the comparison group wage, making Vascepa look better than it actually is.
The other study used olive oil which could help make the comparison group benefit from fish oil better than others.
The leaders of both studies say that any impact from comparison oils is not enough to change the main results and that independent experts agree. But Nissen, who pioneered another fish oil research, uses corn oil as a comparison.
& # 39; Sunlight & # 39; vitamin
Manson's work also carried out a vitamin D test, which allowed the skin to be exposed to the sun. Although it's hard to get enough of food like milk, eggs and fatty fish, now many foods are reinforced. Some studies have found that people with low levels of D are more likely to develop cancer, but it is not known whether supplements change this risk.
Participants received 2,000 international units of D-3 (the most active form, also known as vitamin D, cholecalciferol) or fake vitamin pills for five years.
Vitamin D did not affect the likelihood of heart attack or stroke or the development of cancer. After the exclusion of the first two years of use, the researchers found that there were fewer than 149 cancer deaths among the vitamin – 112 in the placebo group.
"This can take years to develop cancer," said Manson, "this looks promising" and people will continue to work longer to see whether the trend continues.
Some other experts said these numbers point to a potential benefit that needs more work.
From the Research Center of the Medical Center of the University of Maine. Dr. Clifford Rosen and Dr. Dr. John Keaney Jr., in a review in a medical journal, said, inde It's positive & # 39; the results need to be interpreted carefully.