One of the most serious health problems of impaired, poor quality sleep is a significantly increased risk for diabetes. The relationship between sleep and diabetes is complex and scientists still try to understand that sleep and circadian rhythms (also known as internal biological clock) affect this disease. However, we have some sleep because we know that there is a strong link to sleep metabolism (how our body uses food for energy), the hormones that regulate appetite and diets, and the body's use of blood sugar and insulin.
Sleep is important for metabolic health
Sleep is an important time for cell restoration and repair at the cellular level. This includes maintaining the immune system (which prevents us from getting sick) and the body's metabolic functions. Stages 3 and 4, referred to as deep or slow wave sleep, are particularly important in terms of the ability of the body to use insulin to regulate blood sugar.
Poor sleep affects diabetes, both directly and indirectly, triggering changes in hormones, contributing to weight gain and obesity, resulting in behavior and lifestyle changes.
Sleep disorder increases the risk of type 2 diabetes
People with diabetes are more likely to have obstructive sleep apnea and other sleep disorders.
More severe sleep problems may be more severe and less well controlled diabetes.
There is a lot of interest in short sleep and risks. And rightly. Persons who report that they do not try to sleep adequately in middle age and older adulthood are twice as likely to diagnose type 2 diabetes, according to various large-scale studies.
Over the past few decades, we have seen an increase in the number of people with chronic sleep deprivation, obesity and diabetes. Increases in these serious public health problems seem interdependent.
According to data from the Center for Disease Control published in 2017, more than 100 million Americans currently have diabetes or prediabetes. It is close to one-third of the population. According to the CDC report, approximately one in four people with diabetes do not know they have this. And almost 90 percent of people with prediabetes are unaware of their condition.
At the same time, more than a third of Americans are sleeping less than they need. For most of us, this is a seven-hour neighborhood in a night.
And now more than 36% of adults in the United States are obese. Obesity is the most important risk factor for diabetes – and excessive scientific evidence suggests that poor sleep contributes to obesity. Obesity has doubled for nearly 40 years worldwide, and inadequate sleep rates have increased in the same period.
However, not being able to sleep adequately is not the only sleep problem that can increase the risk of diabetes and jeopardize its effective management. In addition to the lack of sleep, we also know that poor sleep quality can increase the metabolic functioning of the body and the risk of illness. It seems a surprise to many of my patients, but there is also increasing evidence that too much sleep can increase the risk of diabetes.
And scientists are increasingly investigating the role of circadian rhythms (biological watch) in the development of diabetes. Circadian rhythms affect many areas of your health, some of which may not be aware of them. In addition to sleep-wake cycles, circadian rhythms also regulate hormones that affect metabolism, appetite, insulin, and blood sugar. When circadian rhythms are not synchronized, the body's metabolic health may decrease and the risk of diabetes may increase.
When we think about the effect on sleep and diabetes, it is important to consider not only the amount of sleep but also the sleep quality, sleep habits and sleep patterns.
In spite of the ever-increasing evidence linking diabetes to sleep, sleep problems remain a negligible factor in the risk and management of the disease. Let us take a closer look at ways in which poor sleep can affect the development of diabetes and the health of living people.
Bad sleep mixes with insulin and blood sugar
Scientists are among the more recent discoveries they made about sleep, and the connection to diabetes is so important: Poor sleep changes how the body produces and uses insulin.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to be used for energy, allowing the muscles and tissues in the body to absorb glucose from the bloodstream. In this way, insulin regulates blood glucose (or blood sugar) – helps to maintain a level that is neither too high (hyperglycaemia) or too low (hypoglycemia). I often think of my patients as a key to a lock of insulin or as a doorman in a hotel that allows the garage to come out of the blood and enter the cell.
Cells may become insulin resistant and thus absorb glucose less than blood. In this case our kadar key edi may not work as smoothly as we want. This leads to consistently high levels of glucose (ie, sugar) in the blood, which triggers the body to increase insulin production. Sometimes the body is under insulin that results in high blood sugar. Over time, this high blood sugar and insulin resistance dynamics (or lack of adequate insulin production) can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. In Type 1 diabetes, a person's body cannot do insulin naturally (it's very different, it's also affected by sleep).
Recent research has shown that insulin, like many other hormones and body systems, is working in a daily cycle. Scientists now think that the circadian clock of the body directs this cycle by affecting the timing of production and the release of insulin from the pancreas. Also, there seems to be certain times of day when cells are more and less sensitive to insulin. Disorders often occur in the circadian hours that go hand in hand with sleep problems, reduce the effectiveness of insulin and contribute to insulin resistance over time. As insulin is the task of regulating blood glucose, insulin changes cause changes in blood sugar.
Circadian rhythms can be synchronized by:
- Irregular sleep programs (shift work, like a new parent, etc.)
- Poor quality patterns, restless sleep (from the effects of your environment or the use of caffeine)
- The presence of sleep disorders, (insomnia and sleep apnea)
- Too much or too little sleep
Lack of sleep also appears to affect the health of cells in the pancreas where insulin is released and released. In a recent study using rats, scientists have investigated the effects of sleep deprivation on cell function and found that inadequate sleep caused stress in pancreatic cells and also impaired blood sugar levels. Both cellular stress and disorders of blood sugar were more pronounced in older mice, indicating that the body was less skilled in dealing with the effects of sleep deprivation.
Sleep affects insulin activity and blood sugar
According to an increasing research structure, insufficient and low-quality sleep can reduce insulin sensitivity and reduce glucose tolerance (how quickly and effectively the body removes glucose from the bloodstream). And it doesn't take months or years for these negative effects to kick.
According to a study conducted in 2016, one night of total sleep deprivation reduced insulin sensitivity to a high-fat diet for more than six months.
Partial sleep deprivation – a chronic sleep tube that many people routinely experience – reduces the body's ability to use insulin effectively and keep blood sugar balanced. Scientists in a study, one night after sleeping five hours a night, a group of healthy people saw significant decreases in insulin sensitivity.
Living with chronic sleep loss also reduces glucose tolerance and makes the body less effective in converting glucose into energy. Sleep disturbance interferes with the body's ability to regulate glucose throughout the day and night.
We know less about the effect of excessive sleep on insulin and glucose. However, recent research shows that too much sleep has negative effects on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance.
Sleep affects other hormones that affect metabolic health
Sleep deprivation also increases the production of cortisol – which can make cells more resistant to insulin – and other hormones, including thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and testosterone, which can lead to insulin sensitivity and decreased blood sugar.
Melatonin, which plays such a critical role in maintaining regular sleep patterns to synchronize our siren clocks, seems to affect insulin. We have known for several years that some gene variants associated with melatonin receptors are strongly associated with higher risks for type 2 diabetes. Recent research has shown that higher levels of melatonin reduce the ability of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas to release insulin, and that individuals with these genetic variants experience this insulin-suppressing effect more strongly.
All of these sleep-related changes – insulin and other hormones that affect blood sugar and metabolism – occur in healthy and non-diabetic people, leading them to prediabete and eventually diabetes. These changes make it difficult to treat and control effectively in people with diabetes.
The role of diet and sleep in weight increases the risk of diabetes
Obesity is the most important determinant in the development of type 2 diabetes. Over 90 percent of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese. Scientists called the lı twin epidemics Bilim the simultaneous rise of obesity and diabetes.
Sleep, appetite and eating patterns, exercise habits and starvation regulating hormones have a strong effect on the feeling of fullness. In all these ways, sleep plays a strong role in the risk of obesity. You've seen how sleep can affect diabetes directly through the effects of insulin and blood sugar. Sleep also affects diabetes indirectly due to its effect on body weight.
Poor and inadequate sleep, changes hunger hormones. When we don't get a high-quality sleep, hormone leptin levels decrease. Leptin is a hormone that helps maintain energy balance in the body. The appetite suppresses signals that you are consuming enough energy through caloric intake – signals that turn into sensations of fullness. Leptin also helps regulate the metabolism and the rate at which the body burns fat. Lower leptin levels slow the metabolism. Bad sleep can also make the body more resistant to the appetizing effects of leptin. Recent research shows that leptin plays a direct role in regulating blood glucose. Scientists are looking at leptine for the first time, not as a possible treatment for obesity and diabetes. Good sleep is a way of providing your body with leptin naturally.
At the same time, poor sleep lowers leptin, but also increases the level of another hormone important for energy balance and weight: ghrelin. Sometimes called artır hunger hormone, ghrelin increases appetite, increases hunger and desire to eat.
This doubling of hormone imbalance – reduced leptin and increased ghrelin – can make it difficult to maintain a healthy weight, causing weight gain and a high risk for diabetes. It also makes weight control more difficult for individuals with prediabetes and diabetes.
Poor sleep makes us more sedentary. When you are not resting – if you are not getting enough sleep or sleep are restless and distorted – you will not spend less energy on physical activity. Regular exercise is an important way to reduce the risk of diabetes and, if any, to manage the situation more effectively.
We're eating wrong things at wrong times. Sleep insufficiency creates hunger for high-fat and high-sugar foods – a type of diet that can lead to diabetes over time and at the same time makes diabetes more difficult to control. When we're asleep, the reward centers of our brains are passing at extreme speed. We can also make more impulsive and less effort to conduct cognitive functions and complex decision-making and decision-making processes that enable us to make healthier and moderate food decisions. This will make us swallow more.
Insomnia can allow us to eat a more general meal (an analysis recommends 385 calories once a day!) And causes less healthy nutrition. Weak sleep also shifts a larger part of the daily calorie intake to evening hours. Eating at night contributes to weight gain by disrupting circadian function and also to problems related to insulin and blood sugar. It also causes sleep damage – a vicious cycle of impaired sleep and eating habits.