According to foreign media reports, astronomers first observed the final stage of the merger of galaxies. Through thick gas and dust, they saw the super-mass black holes closer and closer, and they grew rapidly after the collision.Most, if not most, galaxies have super-mass black holes with millions of masses and billions of times the sun. For example, Yay A *, located in the center of the Milky Way, is a very bright and intense radio wave source that is thought to be the nearest super mass black hole, about 4.5 million times the sun.
In the galaxy of NGC 6240, you can see that the two small galaxies are in the final stages of the merger. Black holes in the nucleus of the two small galaxies are growing rapidly, consuming gas and dust that combine galaxies.
Some of the colliding galactic nuclei are in the final stages of the incorporation. At the top, the NGC 6240 is taken by the galaxy of the galaxy and the left by the 3rd generation of the Hubble Space Telescope, while the picture on the right shows the galactic core of the Keck Observatory with its infrared rays. Translated by. "Panoramic Sky Telescope and Quick Response System" and Keck Observatory.
Previous studies have found that the combination of galaxies can contribute to the growth of super-mass black holes. Researchers say that black holes in the center of colliding galaxies can unite to form larger black holes.
The unification of galaxies will provide a great opportunity for super-mass black holes to swallow stars and swallow substances. This collision emits excessive amounts of radiation and is probably the driving force behind the quas. A quasar is one of the brightest objects in the universe. However, the authors of this new article claim that the evidence supporting the super-mass black hole growth model based on galaxies is very complex. Although some studies show a link between quasars and unified galaxies, other studies have not found such relationships.
A possible explanation for the lack of significant correlation between quasars and unified galaxies is that the gas and dust surrounding these galaxies likely blacken black holes significantly. Even in the early stages of the merger, this is the case when the distance between the galaxies is more than 16,000 light years. The authors of the study show that computer simulations will be at the highest level in the final stage of the galactic integration process where the distance between the galactic nuclei is less than 10,000 light years.
Now, the researchers have observed several pair of galaxies in the later stages of the merger, and the super-mass black holes in their centers are constantly approaching. These findings will provide clues as to how to create larger super-mass black holes.
The researchers first obtained 10-year X-ray data from NASA's Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory to scan for information about hidden black holes. When black holes absorb the substance, these "active" black holes can be observed even if high energy X-rays are obstructed by thick gases and dust.
The researchers then looked at the galaxies matching the X-ray information by scanning data from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Keck Observatory (Hawaii, USA). The newspaper's first author, Michael Koss, said the Keck Observatory could make the star image sharper by a computer-controlled deformed mirror with a technique called adaptive optics. "There's a big increase in resolution."
Coase is an astrophysics in Eureka Scientific Technologies in Oakland, California. He said: gal This is equivalent to the 20/200 vision (equal to 0.1 kör which we call visual acuity), ie legal blindness, the 20/20 vision (visual power 1.0), so that we can see people's incredible details of the galaxy. "
As a result, researchers analyzed data from 96 galaxies observed by the Keck Observatory and 385 galaxies observed by the Hubble telescope. The average distance between all these galaxies and the Earth is 330 million light years that are relatively close to the cosmic scale, and many galaxies are similar in size to the Milky Way.
Researchers have discovered that more than 17% of these galaxies have a pair of black holes at the center, suggesting they are in the late stages of the merger of galaxies. These findings are consistent with the computer simulations of the researchers; this shows that the active black holes hidden in gas and dust-rich galaxies are the reason for the association of many super mass black holes.
"The unification of galaxies can be an important way to train black holes," Coase said. The Milky Way we are in is now merging with the adjacent Andromeda galaxy, and the super-mass black holes in the nucleus of the two galaxies eventually collide and unite. Now, there are millions of light years between the two galaxies, but we (Milky Way) are heading towards the Andromeda galaxy at a speed of 400,000 kilometers per hour, "said Coase," in 6 billion years, the Milky Way or the Fairy Galaxy will survive by leaving a larger galaxy. "
For galaxies hidden behind gas and dust, clearer observations can come from NASA's James Webb Space Telescope. This is an infrared space telescope to be launched in 2021. The new generation of terrestrial astronomical telescopes, such as the thirty meter telescope, the European extremely large telescope (E-ELT) and the giant magellan telescope will also be available through active optical systems. Bring a more detailed view of the galaxy. Researchers say that the James Webb Space Telescope can measure the quality, growth rate, and other physical properties of the super-mass black holes that are closer to us.
The results of the study were published in the November 7, journal Nature.