Sunday , October 17 2021

This weekend, China has taken on a historic mission to land on the far side of the Moon



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In the early hours of Saturday morning in China, a rocket will be launched and will carry a traveler and a rover connected to the Moon. It will determine the beginning of China's ambitious month mission, known as Chang kalane-4, which will attempt to land on the spacecraft on the far side of the moon – the region that is always facing the Earth. No other nation has made such a success – which means the mission can launch China into the history of spaceship.

Up to now, China has been a select group of three countries that have gotten a spacecraft smoothly on the surface of the Moon. Apart from the remarkable Apollo missions of America, the former Soviet Union also landed on the moon surface of the robotic spacecraft, and the last mission occurred in 1976. In 2013, China set out on a moon and set off on a traveling route. This task, known as Chang .e-3, was part of a decades-long campaign for China to work with the Bear Robotic Spacecraft. Before Chang .e-3, the country had put a spacecraft into the moon's orbit, and at the same time it had hit the moon's moon for months. Now, the next step is to visit a part of the unexplored Moon.

This is an important step because it's an incredibly challenging job to go to the far side of the Moon. The moon is locked by the Earth, that is to say around the axis of our planet to complete a full orbit around the same time. Conclusion: We only see one half of the month. This close side of the moon is the only region that we slowly land, because there is a direct line of sight with the Earth that facilitates easier communication with the earth control. Down far On the side of the moon, more than one spacecraft must have worked in tandem. In addition to the terrain itself, you need some kind of probing that communicates on earth near the Moon.

And that's exactly what China has. In May, the Chinese National Space Administration launched a satellite called Queqiao to provide communication for the upcoming Chang -e-4 mission. After a month in space, Queqiao settled on a surface facing the far side of the Moon, 37,000 miles away from the moon surface. The satellite draws circles around a point known as the second Earth-Moon Lagrange point. A place that looks like parking for the spacecraft. At a Lagrange point, the gravitational force of two objects (stars, planets, etc.) is equal to the way a spacecraft remains in connection with the two entities. At this particular Lagrange point, Queqiao will face the far side of the Moon and allow communication between the spacecraft and the Earth using a large curved antenna.

Tır It will be a highly technological achievement to show that you can communicate with the roving on a long distance using a relay satellite and that you can perform it, and that will bring a lot of prestige, uy said Andrew Jones, a freelance journalist covering China's spaceship program Anger.


A long March-4C rocket departs from the launch center of southwest Xichang carrying Queqiao (

A long March-4C rocket departs from the southwest Xichang launch center on 21 May 2018 in Xichang, southwestern Sichuan province, China, with the Queqiao (uan Magpie Bridge Çin) satellite.
Photo by AFP / Getty Images

If everything will work, China will see one of the most flurry areas of the lunar surface: the South Pole-Aitken basin. Although the exact landing site is not confirmed, according to Jones, the Changone-4 landing and navigator is believed to land in the Von Kármán crater in this region. The South Pole-Aitken basin is a large impact crater, about 1,550 miles in diameter and 7.5 miles deep on the far side of the Moon. It is thought to be one of the oldest domains on the lunar surface, but we do not know exactly How old – and the actual age, scientists can tell a lot about the early Solar System.

Most of the craters on the moon are thought to have formed about 3.9 billion years ago, based on NASA's analysis of the lunar stones collected during the Apollo missions. Many scientists believe that these holes occur at a time when the Solar System was known as Late Heavy Bomber. This is a time when a large number of asteroids have escaped into the inner planets. We thought that this time took place after the formation of many of the planets in our cosmic neighborhood, so it is considered mah late gezegen in the development of our Solar System. If the South Pole-Aitken basin is 3.9 billion years old, it supports the idea that this bombardment has taken place. If he's much bigger than that, he'il tease that theory. Us This actually helps us understand not just the Moon, but the entire Solar System, ”says Professor of Engineering at Notre Dame University and Emeritus Chair of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group or LEAG. Clive Neal Anger. Önemli So this is important; Larger than the Moon. "

The South Pole-Aitken basin has been a long study target because of the potential to give us information about our history. Scientists have proposed to send spacecraft to this region to collect samples and send them back to Earth for in-depth analysis. ”The South Pole-Aitken basin is extremely important, and we still don't do it because it's very difficult,“ Neal says.


South Pole-Aitken basin in the Moon
Picture: NASA / GSFC / Arizona University

Unfortunately, Changeme-4 will not return anything to the Earth, so it probably won't tell us the exact age of the basin. But you should get some interesting information. In order to understand how the Moon's structure is under the surface of the basin, the Chang .e-4 rover will carry a ground penetrating radar and give us more information about how this field is formed. It will also have an instrument to understand what the surface is in this region. And he carries a Swedish instrument designed to understand how particles from the Sun interact with moon stones.

In the meantime, the terrain, which is responsible for transporting the explorer to the surface of the Moon, will be doing science at the landing point using its location on the Moon. Because these tools will be on the far side of the Moon, they will be protected from the Earth's electromagnetic interference and will not have to deal with the planet's atmosphere. The terrain, the space environment and the Universe will work at low frequencies – something we cannot do from our planet.

Of course, both the descent and the rover will carry cameras to take detailed images of the moon's surface, just like Chang ;e-3's predecessor Chang 39e-3. Most of the Chang .e-4 design is modeled after Changene-3, which goes down near the Moon and tells the scientists a lot about an area known as the Imbrium basin. Hopefully, Changie-4's navigator will move further than the explorer in Chang edebile-3 & Yutu, where they can travel about a month later.

Certainly unique, though, Chang merdivene-4 is only one step above the ladder of China's ten-year Chang’e mission plan (Chang’e Goddess of the Moon in Chinese mythology). Following this mission, China plans to launch another robot mission on the Moon named Chang tasarlane-5, which is designed to return to the Moon next month. If successful, the month material will be the first in the world since 1976. Beyond that, Neal thinks that a sample turn on the far side of the Moon is on the horizon. Al Chang Nee-4 is the first step, and I'm sure it will raise more questions than it answers, daha Neal says. Ol The demonstration of talent, however, is the distance and landings, which tells us what the next step is, and, as I said, the return of the robotic example is a logical next step. “


A presentation of the Changue-4 navigator
Picture: Chinese Academy of Sciences

In a more distant future, although China's people were hoping to put them on the Moon, it was not clear about these plans. Jones shows that China is advancing towards flight by developing concepts for a new launch vehicle in flight and a rocket that can carry people. Or Chinese astronauts don't have a government-approved plan for the month, but you can see that you're working on the various components you need, “he says.

Human missions are still for years, and for now, China is focusing on Chang’e-4. However, as in many of China's missions, the details surrounding this flight were difficult to come by. We know that the mission will be launched on one of China's longest March 3B rockets in the Xichang Satellite Launch Center of the country. And due to air-off notifications, the departure time is expected to be around Friday, December 7 at 13.30. China can explain that the mission is a success, but the Jones says we can hear earlier than other sources.

Tik Some poor souls near the Xichang launch center may have appeared to be an earthquake and complain about it on social media, ın says Jones.

If Changiyore-4 is carrying it into space, it spends less than a month traveling to the Moon, possibly going down in the first week of January. If this happens, China will be officially transported to its elite group as the only country to visit the Moon that we cannot see from the World.

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