The parasites that control the behavior of the hosts in their own right are a well-documented phenomenon of nature, but the discovery of a previously unknown relationship between the parasitic wasp and the social spider is particularly troubling.
Taking the brains of unsuspecting hosts is something that some organisms typically do for breeding purposes. Famous examples include a fungus that controls the movement of carpenter ants, a single-celled parasite that cats irresistibly meet urine, and a worm that causes infected fish to perform a complex dance.
Another parasite relationship discovered by scientists from the University of British Columbia can now be added to this list – and one of the biggest things we see in terms of both complexity and hate status. In the new study published today in Ecological Entomology, the lead author is Philippe Fernandez-Fournier, Zatypot to Uses parasitic wasp species and uses social abuses Anelosimus eximius the spider first uses it as an escape vehicle and then forces him to build an incubation room. Oh, and then she eats spiders.
Fernandez-Fournier accidentally stumbled upon the discovery of Ecuadorian Amazon while trying various parasites living in their nests A. eximius. These arachnids are referred to as social columns, because they live in large colonies, catch prey, share parental duties, and rarely go beyond the comfortable boundaries of common, basket-shaped nests.
These spiders were rigid in their behavior, so Fernandez-Fournier noticed that some of these spiders infected with a parasitic larva were deviated one or two meters away from the colony. This observation was strange and rare on its own, but the UBC scientist watched as the spiders began to turn the web of heavily curved silk and plant parts.
Fernandez-Fournier said in a statement, "Normally it was so strange that they didn't do it, so I started to take notes."
Curious, she took the cocoon nets back to the lab. When she clearly sliced them up she shocked her with a bumblebee thriving inside. Realizing that something was on, Fernandez-Fournier and his team revealed a total unregistered interaction between the two species.
Here's how it works: An adult woman Zatypot to wasps lays an egg in the abdomen of an abdomen Anelosimus eximius spider. After exiting the larva, it adheres to the spider and feeds on its blood. The larva is growing and getting the spider's body. Finally, the spider enters a state of davran zombation “where he will not behave like his normal self. Under the influence of the larvae, the spider leaves his colony and undertakes the task of forming the cocoon. When this mandatory construction task is completed, the spiders remain inactive and allow the larva to be killed and the host to finish the job. Sold, larvae shoots into the cocoon of the web, which uses as an incubator for the next germination stage. About nine to 11 days later, a fully grown bumblebee emerges from the cocoon. The cycle, unfortunately, begins for the next eight-foot victim.
Researchers are unique in that the strategy is documented for parasitoid bees to hunt solitary spiders before.
"This change of behavior is very stiff," Samantha Straus, co-author of the study, said. Lar The wasp completely abducts the behavior and brains of the spider and makes it never to do it, leave its nest and go back to a completely different structure. It's too dangerous for little spiders. "
Straus added, kolon We think that wasps are targeting these social spiders because it provides a large, stable host colony and food source. Also, the larger the spider colony, the more likely it was to target it. "
In terms of how the bumblebee larvae cover the hypnotic spell, theorists that the researchers inject a hormone that changes the brain into the spider. This hormone forces the spider to think in a different stage of life, or it works as a signal that causes the spider to escape from the colony. But these are just estimates.
Fernandez-Fournier and Straus wanted to return to the Ecuadorian forest to learn more about these evil wasps and landlords. In particular, they want to know whether they are targeting the same spider colonies over and over again, and if so, how this behavior works as an advantage.[Ecological Entomology]