By the age of 60, one in three American women had a hysterectomy. Although hysterectomy is a common and routine procedure, removal of the uterus before natural menopause may actually be problematic for cognitive processes such as memory.
Researchers at the Arizona State University Department of Psychology have found that rats from the surgical removal of the uterus in the uterus have a number of memory deficits that remain unbroken and suggest that the uterus may have functions beyond reproduction. The study will be published on December 6. Endocrinology.
A sleepless and useless organ?
Endocrinology textbooks used in medical and graduate schools define the uterus as a fetus or a single function that supports and supports a non-functioning organ other than reproduction. However, there is evidence from research in animals and other people who think otherwise.
The uterus and ovaries communicate for reproductive functions, but there are also direct connections between the uterus and the brain through the body's autonomic nervous system. It coordinates unconscious functions such as autonomic nervous system, respiration and digestion. Less understood uterine-brain connections can affect cognitive functions and how females affect their age.
Heather Bimonte-Nelson, a professor of psychology at the newspaper and senior author, said, yazar There are some studies showing that women who are exposed to hysterectomy but who protect their ovaries increase the risk of dementia when they occur before natural menopause. Gaz . "We wanted to explore and understand whether the uterus itself affects brain function."
The research team used female rats to systematically test the role of uterus and ovaries in learning and memory. Rats were divided into four groups according to the type of menopause surgery. Three experimental groups were: uterine uterine release, removal of the ovaries with the left uterus and removal of both the uterus and the ovaries. The fourth group received a fake surgery with no reproductive organs removed.
Six weeks after the operation, the researchers taught four groups of mice how to navigate a maze. After all the mice learned of this task, the researchers tested the memory capacity of rats. The team also looked at the reproductive organs and hormones.
"This experiment tests the role of the uterus in cognitive changes associated with menopause. The researchers use various surgical approaches used for oophorectomy, hysterectomy, or women used for both. This alone is commendable," says Donna Korol, an associate professor at Syracuse University. 39 in biology. "One of the beauties of this experimental design was the sampling of different measurements from the same rat and allowed intra-animal comparisons in multiple systems."
Card game "concentration" a rodent version
During the memory test, rats were wandering through a water maze that looked like a sun burst with eight arms spreading from a circular center. Some of the guns had sunken platforms at the end and the mice had to swim to find a hidden platform. At the beginning of the experiment, researchers placed four platforms to find mice. When a rat found a platform, the researcher removed it for the rest of the day. While the rat had to remember where the previous platforms were and which arms were always empty, it rebooted the labyrinth when searching for remaining platforms.
The research team found that only two rats to go up and down the two platforms could not lift the increased memory load of rats. These mice showed that they could never remember which arms of the labyrinth led to the platforms by turning to places where there was no platform.
Other types of surgery did not affect how many errors the mice made in the maze. Rats formed only by removal of the ovaries or removal of the ovaries and removal of the uterus were similar to those in the fake surgery group.
Stephanie Koebele, ASU Psychology: "Only the surgical removal of the uterus has a unique and negative effect on the working memory, or how much information the rats can simultaneously give, is an effect we have seen after learning the maze rules of mice." graduate student and first writer in the newspaper.
A hormonal puzzle
At the end of the study, researchers looked at the size, shape and structure of the ovaries in all groups. Only the ovaries of the hysterectomy group could not be distinguished from the ovaries of the fake surgical group that protect the ovaries and the uterus.
The research team also measured different amounts of hormones such as progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in the blood. Hormones are organs produced by the body that regulate organ and body systems and send information. Although only these groups still had ovaries, only the hormone levels in the hysterectomy group were different from the sham surgery group.
Ele Although ovaries were structurally similar in all groups, hormones produced in a group that received hysterectomy alone resulted in a different hormone profile, lar says Koebele, a companion of the Institute of the Institute of the National Institute for Doctoral Studies. "Hormones affect both brain and other body systems, and having a changing hormonal profile can affect the course of cognitive aging and create different health risks."
It is completely complex how changing hormone profile affects cognitive aging or health risks, but it is still very important to study and understand.
. Complexity does not mean impossible, at said Bimonte-Nelson, directing the ASU's Behavioral Neuroscience and Aging Laboratory. The laboratory is currently testing whether the memory deficit after hysterectomy is reversible over time or the beginning of a more general memory impairment.