Saturday , July 2 2022

How to land on Mars


Check the weather
3 hours before landing

Impression of the Artist by NASA / Martin Kornmesser

After a six-month journey from the world, the InSight spacecraft is in a certain orbit to land on the red planet.

About three hours before landing, mission travelers will have the chance to adjust the timing or alignment of InSight to avoid dangerous Martian storms.

Separate from the cruise stage
13 minutes before landing

Before InSight's entry into the Mars atmosphere, the spacecraft will leave the solar paneled cruise phase and switch to battery power.

It takes 8 minutes and 7 seconds to reach Mars from the world, so we cannot know whether InSight is a success or failure until the landing phase is over.

Enter the atmosphere
6 minutes before landing

InSight will be about 12,300 miles per hour to the weak Martian atmosphere.

Spacecraft must be struck at an angle of 12 degrees to survive. It is very steep and will burn InSight; very shallow and will jump back into the atmosphere and into space.

Distribute Parachute
3 minutes, 7 seconds before landing

InSight will slow down as quickly as tears in the Martian atmosphere, then take a supersonic parachute about seven miles above the surface.

Decrease the heat shield
2 seconds before landing 52 seconds

A pyrotechnic explosion will release the newly wounded heat shield in the entrance heat of InSight. When InSight has to descend from heavy dust, the shield is thicker than previous missions.

Extend legs
2 seconds before landing 42 seconds

Ten seconds later, more pyrotechnic spacecraft will expand the three shock absorbing feet. After that, InSight will turn on its location detecting radar.

Fall from the back shell
45 seconds before opening

In less than a minute after landing, InSight will drop and gain some distance from the parachute and back shell for a moment.

Fire Rockets
44 seconds before landing

The landing will launch 12 small rockets to slow down and move away from the falling parachute.

Step down slowly
15 seconds before landing

After stopping the horizontal movement, InSight will start a soft descent of approximately 8 feet per second.

Land in Mars

NASA expects to receive approval on Monday at 2:33 am. Eastern clock.

If InSight successfully touches, it will be the first Mars landing since the complicated landing of the curious traveler in 2012.

InSight plans planning

landing area

InSight plans planning

landing area

InSight plans planning

landing area

InSight plans planning

landing area

InSight aims at a wide equatorial level called Elysium Planitia.

Flatness can draw boring pictures, but is considered an ideal landing place for the task of inspecting the interior of the planet.

Unfurl Solar Panels
20 minutes after landing

InSight will open the two solar panels and wait a few minutes after landing and waiting for the dust to accumulate to land.

The land will then spend a few days checking their systems and taking images of the landing site.

Begin working
A few days after landing

In the days and weeks following the descent, InSight will take stock of its surroundings, accurately measure and photograph the area around the terrain, and then carefully place the robotic arm on the surface of the Mars three instruments.

Under a protective dome you will listen to a perfectly sensitive seismometer marsquakes and a hollow temperature probe will measure the inner temperatures of the planet.

For more information about what InSight wants to learn about Mars, follow a task preview below, or discover InSight and Mars in augmented reality.

The latest Mars landing

NASA / Jet Propulsion Laboratory / University of Arizona

The Curiosity rover touched Gale Crater about 340 miles south of InSight's planned landing area in August 2012.

Curiosity is seen as a small point in the dark landing band where glossy surface dust is blown during landing.

NASA / Jet Propulsion Laboratory / University of Arizona

InSight's design largely borrows from the successful Phoenix mission near the Martian north pole in 2008.

Phoenix and his parachute were photographed on a descending orbital spacecraft in front of the Heimdal crater.

Unsuccessful landing

NASA / Jet Propulsion Laboratory / University of Arizona

In 2016, the Schiaparelli landing struck Mars, after the contradictory predictions of its height had dropped too early in the heat shield.

NASA / Jet Propulsion Laboratory / University of Arizona

And in 2003, the Beagle 2 landing worker successfully touched, but could not communicate with the Earth after deploying all solar panels.

The Beagle 2 is the small white point in the center of the image above.

Mars for six months

Mars has an elliptical orbit that zooms into Earth every two years. Launch of InSight was scheduled to this window to minimize travel time.

InSight Launch

May 5, 2018

InSight Launch

May 5, 2018

InSight Launch

May 5, 2018

Mars was the closest to Earth in late July and will return again in 2020, the next Mars rover (and helicopter) launch.

InSight's trip to Mars was relatively fast compared to other missions launched in 2018. The BepiColombo spacecraft will take seven years to reach Mercury and the Parker Solar Probe will spend seven years inland to touch the sun.

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Sources: NASA; Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Caltech. Although the exact times are dependent on landing conditions, time estimates from the Planetary Society have been updated. Images of NASA / JPL-Caltech except where specified.

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