Monday , June 27 2022

Coeur d 'Alene Press – Food & Health, Hunger games for endangered orcas.


Over the past few years, the Snake River salmon in Idaho and the Puget Sound orcas have been dependent on whether the four lower Snake River Dam had to be taken out of the fate of decades to take to save the fish and fish.

Orcas, especially the calm killer whales in the south, have been in trouble and for some time now. This summer, this summer, a member of the J-pod, a subgroup of Puget Sound orcas, focused sharply when it carried dead calves for 17 days and attracted media attention around the world.

The whales are suffering from food shortages, the noise from ships in busy Puget Sound, and the accumulation of pollutants in body fat. All three are connected, but the downward boiling is that whales are not enough to eat and that what they eat is mostly salmon.

The salmon coming up in the Snake River Basin comes here. The whales prefer the chinook salmon and feed on a number of different stocks in the West Coast of the United States and Canada. In the greater part of the year, from spring to autumn, whales are hunted in chinook, returning to the rivers of Puget Sound and Salish Sea in the Fraser River in Canada. But they also leave the inland waters to travel along the coast looking for salmon and a less degree other species before returning in the spring.

One of the stocks whales target at that time was the ones coming back from the Columbia River and its tributaries. This brings the Snake River. Defenders of Orca have formed a philosophical and strategic alliance with Snake River salmon supporters and think that breaking the four dams in the Snake River will significantly increase the number of salmon and steel heads from Snake River Basin. As many scientists do, they believe that this break will lead to healing and healing of the Snake River salmon.

Violation: How much influence?

And how do the dams help whales? Nobody can be said for sure, but there are two competing scientific camps that are more important for whales that run the Snake River chinook. Those who believe that Orcas is more dependent, chinooks from Columbia and Snake river basins tend to see less of their breaking potential, because the autumn chinook run is better than the spring chinook runs. And the Chinook returning to the Columbia Basin doesn't come from Snake River.

This is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, which is responsible for making efforts to stabilize and heal both whales and fish. In an information form about killer whales and Snake River dams, the agency says the decline has been quite good over the past decade, despite the decline in ocean conditions over the past few years.

Dü Over the last decade, more adult Chinook salmon has returned the Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River at any time since the completion of the dam in 1938. NOAA Fisheries found that the hatchery was more than compensating the fish lost to the dams. The total number of chinooks given to killer whales, ıları the agency discusses in this brochure.

The Agency sees the whole of the Colombian Basin as a place to feed the whales and want to see more development than other basins.

Iyor Columbia and Snake rivers produce more than half of the chinook on the West Coast. That's where the whales come from, because the salmon is here because it's not the losses, çünkü said Michael Milstein, spokesman for NOAA in Portland.

Milstein said it was important to work in all the stocked whales.

”Each adds fish to whales at different times of the year in different places,“ he said. Değil A race is not about being critical. This is related to the diversity of rivers and the stocks they produce, each with a history and timing of their own life. "

Those who consider spring chinook to be more important than the Columbia and Snake basins think that violations can play a meaningful role. Spring chinook is less durable than falls, and the larger Columbia Basin is dominated by Snake River stocks. Breaking dams will be beneficial in both runs, but spring can cause chinook to fall.

Orcas: chinook experts

One thing is for sure, southern residents killer whales chinook salmon experts. All fish form the majority of their diet and whales are not enough to eat. To determine how to reverse this, NOAA scientists have tried to measure the relative importance of different West Coast chinook salmon tours, so they know where to focus their efforts in the best way. In the ranking, scientists looked at three factors: if a certain stock appears in the whales' diet; stressed during the winter months of whale nutrition; and throughout the year how stocks overlap with whales in time and space.

Based on this system, chinook from the Columbia Basin, including the fall chinook of the Snake River, is relatively high in the list. It's 3. This is largely due to the decline in whales for much of the year. Southern resident killer whales would be fed in the fall during the broad forays on the west coast with the fall flowing towards the end of autumn.

Conversely, spring chinook can be used less often for orcas in most of the time when the whales' scientists call the “outer shore Ters. However, when the spring chinook begins to turn into fresh water, the fish is collected or takes the stage near the mouth of Columbia. . It is a short window for whales, but some believe it was an important food source due to the density of fishes at the time.

Ya The behavior of decline stocks tends to be more shore-driven in ocean distribution. They are not only accessible during spawning migration, but for a longer period of time for whales, yum says Mike Ford, director of conservation biology at the NOAA Northwest Fisheries Science Center in Seattle.

Üyor Highland stocks, especially the Snake and Upper Columbus, are internal (running), but their ocean distribution does not really match the whales. I said. ”It can be quite important for whales during this period.“

When scientists gathered data about the power of the chinook work and the health of whales, they found that whales had higher birth rates over the years with the good chinook run. In fact, from 2013 to 2015, kadar there was a baby boom, 2013 Ford said.

Ole Shelton, a research ecologist at NOAA's Northwest Fisheries Science Center in Seattle, said more scientists don't know, then they don't know how chinook and certain stocks of resident killer whales interact in the south. This is a ”very active research area Buna.

But Shelton, scientists know about the spring seasons, when it comes to ocean scattering, chinook said they learned a lot more in the autumn.

Ir Fall chinook tends to have more shore, and the spring in a particular region tends to be more southern than China's counterparts. N If you look at the autumn chinook range of the Snake River, they tend to be a bit far from the shores of the river, Vancouver, the Island area and central British Columbia, and the shores of Washington. Yıl ”Spring chinook has been studied in a much worse way, but the general idea tends to go further away from the shore and the far north.“

Spring chinook: measure the importance

Two of the three Puget Sound pods of killer whales, fish, while preparing to turn to fresh water for breeding, fish in March, when they approach the mouth of the Columbia river, spring chinook'e target.

Iklı I think it certainly makes sense that the Snake River spring chinook tends to look like an important candidate at that time of the year. Shelton is almost certainly not important at other times of the year. Shel Düş For this time of year – winter and spring – the Snake River will tell you that spring chinook has probably risen considerably from other stocks, but if we look to this year, they will drop a kind. We are sure that they are not in the Puget Sound, the Juan de Fuca Strait and the Georgian Strait. "

The importance of the spring run is insufficient, he said.

Bal I believe the spring chinook of the Snake River will be healthy for the population (killer whale) if there is more. I can see an inaccurate scenario. That's the best thing you can do for as many stocks as you can and will be successful. Yap

For Sam Wasser, a researcher in conservation biology, ecology and physiology at Washington University, the Snake River chinook is undoubtedly critical to whales. Wasser has worked on the blood hormones in the whale feces, which show, among other things, pregnancy rates and stress levels. His team used a new approach to collecting whale waste. They followed the whales behind the whales and used specially trained dogs to find and find whale faeces, so that the swimming pool was washed with the cleaning nets from the ocean surface, before it was immersed or dispersed.

69 percent of all detectable pregnancies among the population of the killer whale resident in the south were unsuccessful and found to have failed more than 30 percent after birth or shortly after birth or at birth when the risk to the mother was higher. Wasser, stress caused by lack of food is the reason for failure, he said.

He and others measured two hormones that showed stress in the whales. The whales showed that whales were less stressed when they returned to the Salyan Sea in the spring after feeding the Columbia River. But this situation has changed rapidly, because the Fraser River chinook is scarce in the Salish Sea until the middle of August.

Whales are whale-hunting, and Canada is a stressful time for them, he said.

“This is a very difficult time for them. Colds, thermal arrangements are required, there is no large adult salmon in the mouth of the river, there are fish of any size, which are more difficult to catch. "

After the winter season, whales find a food that is incompatible when they target the spring chinook, bound to the Snake and Columbia rivers in the middle of spring. Most of the spring chinook stocks pushing the farthest way usually comes first. They also tend to have more fat content to protect them when pulling them up. The Snake River chinook dominates the spring chinook, returning from the Columbia Basin early.

Alı The returning Columbia River chinook is the best-known salmon, Wass says Wasser. Büyük This work was great. The renewal of our business from a harsh winter (whales) was very important, and at the same time, the Fraser River, which was not until mid-August, was protecting them until the chinook hills.

Because Chinook is connected to places like Clearwater and Salmon rivers, it has evolved to become larger and bulkier than other spring chinese.

Alar They have to go about 900 miles in migration. They have to be loaded with oil and come early, ve Wasser said. “It seems very, very important for these whales. If there's something really critical, they're supposed to do something dramatic, this is Columbia River chinook. "

That's why many people are looking for dam pain as something that can help whales. Many whale lawyers see this as a potential quick fix. Wasser's not in between.

Mel I'm not saying they have to violate the dam right now, “he said. Di I think it's something that really deserves serious work, and so far, every time you bring it up, they say we can't go there. I think it should be investigated very seriously to see if there is a long-term solution. I'm stressed out in the long run. There are many things we can do. "

Barker may contact you at [email protected] or (208) 848-2273. Follow her on Twitter @ezebarker.

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