Indus Valley in Leh, near Ladakh, India. Image by KennyOMG / Wikipedia
Climate change was one of the main factors that caused the Harappans to move away from the overhangs of the Indus River. This is a recent study by researchers from the Woods Hole Oceanography Institute (WHOI).
The Indus Valley civilization developed more than 4000 years ago along the plains of the Indus River in India and Pakistan.
Civilization is now believed to be spread over an area of more than one million square kilometers from the Arabian Sea to the Ganges in an area of Pakistan, northwestern India and even eastern Afghanistan. This large but little-known city culture included parts of Mesopotamia and Egypt.
The width of the Indus Valley civilization, 2600-1900BCE. Image with Sue McIntosh Wikipedia
Harappa culture was named after Harappa, one of the largest cities of the Indus civilization on the River Ravi. The inhabitants of this culture lived near the rivers and used fertile plains to make a living. However, this advanced culture gradually disappeared from 3,900 to 3,000 years ago.
A new study by researchers in WHOI He claims that the inhabitants of the Harappan culture had left their city by the 1800 BCE and claimed that they had left the small villages on the Himalayan slopes.
The migration started at around 2500 BCE, and the harsh changes in weather conditions on the Indus valley caused agriculture to make the region increasingly difficult. Summer monsoon rains in Indus valley with climate change are slowly dried. However, winter rains became more tidy on the outskirts and there were small rivers fed.
Although the winter rains in the northern valleys brought less water than the floods from the summer monsoons in the Indus valley, it was at least iler reliable Her according to Liviu Giosan, a geologist in WHOI.
It was difficult for the team to find evidence in the soil samples for seasonal rainfall change. Instead, they analyzed sediment samples collected from the ocean floor in different locations in the Arabian Sea. They studied the shells of foraminifera (or "foramas"), which are unicellular planktones in the sediments, to determine which winter they spent and what winter they had in summer.
The researchers then examined the ancient genetic material (paleo-DNA) preserved in the sediments. The analysis revealed that at the end of the Harappan civilization, the summer monsoons were weakening, the winter monsoons strengthened, and people were forced to migrate from big cities to small villages.
However, researchers are not sure whether this migration took place quickly or if it took hundreds of years to complete.
"We can't say they've completely eliminated the climate – at the same time the Indian-Aryan culture was coming to the region with Iron Age vehicles and horses and cars. But the winter monsoon is likely to play a role." "Giosan says.
The findings of the study were published in the journal. Climate of the Past.