Monday , December 6 2021

Can the gen regulated babies stop working?


Marilynn Marchione and Christina Larson, Associated Press

Published on Sunday, 2 December 2018, 1:37 PM EST

HONG KONG – At the beginning of last year, a little-known Chinese researcher emerged at an elite meeting in Berkeley, California, where scientists and ethnists discussed a technology that shook its core, a tool that "regulates" its own "gene" genes. DNA strings that make up the plan of life.

The young scientist He Jiankui has changed the power of this tool, CRISPR, not only to the genes but also to his own career.

During his visit to the United States, Jennifer Doudna from the University of California, Berkeley, and Stanford University. Dr. CRISPR pioneers such as Matthew Porteus and Stanford ethics expert. He researched great thinkers like William Hurlbut.

Last week, these shocking researchers watched as they missed an international conference, helping them to organize with a surprising argument: he said that although it was an open scientific consensus of making genetic changes to future generations, it helped to make the world's first gen regulated babies. no attempt should be made at this point.

Francis Collins, US National Director of Health Directors, sought a Direktör big misunderstanding Direktör experiment of Direktör a scientist who thought he was a hero ABD. In fact, he took every line scientifically and ethically. "

But no one stopped him. How could it be?

To be fair, scientists, no matter what laws or standards apply, say there is no way to stop someone who wants to deal with DNA. CRISPR is inexpensive and easy to use – so scientists have begun to worry immediately after the invention of technology as such would happen.

And researchers in science and medicine have a long history. These initiate experiments that have been met with early acquaintance or fear – some of which have led to widespread practices such as in-vitro fertilization.

Genetic regulation for reproduction is effectively prohibited in most of the US and Europe. In ChinaMinistry guidelines prohibit embryo research, which violates ethical or ethical principles.

Apparently her goals were not about lip twisted exactly. He trained international experts at Stanford and Rice Universities, where he did his graduate studies and made recommendations before and during the experiment elsewhere.

Did scientists speak their plans? Did they bother him?

The answers are not clear.

”It doesn't fall into the category of legal responsibility, not ethical responsibility, Collins said Collins. He said bilim it doesn't look like a scientist taking responsibility Konuş to speak.

ChinaThe National Health Commission said that the Chinese Academy of Sciences and OYU's own university were in the dark and therefore condemned it.

But Stephen Quake, former Stanford scholar – Hurlbut, Porteus and former scholarship advisor, has had extensive contact with her over the past few years. They and other scientists knew that they were planning to try to make genetically regulated babies or were strongly suspicious.

Some assurances did not think he would follow; others have expressed concerns that never been ignored.

Stanford didn't answer an interview request.

Quake, a professor of bioengineering, was the first to know his ambition. Quake said he had met his hometown for years to come while his former student was in the city and he was intrigued by organizing embryos for live births to make them resistant to the AIDS virus a few years ago.

Quake said he only made general recommendations and talked to mainstream scientists, agreed to verify risks, met the highest ethical standards, and wanted to publish the results in a peer-reviewed journal.

I My advice was very broad, Qu Quake said.

Hurlbut thinks that at the beginning of 2017, Doudna, the inventor of CRISPR, first thought in organizing the first three meetings with leading scientists and ethical experts to discuss technology.

Er However, it ended in our meeting, Hur Hurlbut said.

Since then, he has returned to Stanford a number of times, and Hurlbut says he has "spent many hours" talking to his client about situations in which gene regulation might be appropriate.

Four or five weeks ago, Hurlbut said he had come to see him again and discussed embryonic gene regulation to try to prevent HIV. Hurlbut said a woman was suspected of being involved in the implantation of a modified embryo in her abdomen.

”I warned him,“ he said. . I didn't give the green light to work. I challenged him. I didn't approve what you did. "

Porteus said that he spoke to Hurlbut and that he knew that Hurlbut encouraged the Chinese scientist. In February he wanted to meet with Porteus and said he had received approval from a hospital ethics committee to proceed.

Orum I think I expect to be more open and I think I'm very negative, Port said Porteus. Mış I was angry with his naives, angry with his recklessness. “

Porteus said he was meslek talking to your senior Chinese colleagues Port.

After this meeting, t I didn't hear from him and I agreed he wouldn't go on, sonra said Porteus. ”When we look back, I could have a tint and cry.“

In a draft article on teenage girls he planned to present to magazines, he thanked Mark DeWitt, UC Berkeley biophysicist, for, writing Der. DeWitt said that he had tried to dismantle his work and objected that he had edited the newspaper. He said he saw the newspaper, but the feedback he provided was ü quite general Gaz.

He claims that his work resulted in a second pregnancy, that he could not be independently confirmed and his work was not published.

In contrast, another US scientist said that he not only encouraged Oye but also played a major role in the project.

Michael Deem, a bioengineering professor at Rice University and a Ph.D. degree adviser, says he's been working with him since he returned for the scientist. China In 2012 and he sits on the advisory boards and holds lar a small share genetik in two genetic companies in Shenzhen. Deem argued that he made earlier experiments on the animals of the research team, saying that his actions.

. We have a large number of animal generations that produce genetically regulated and liveable offspring, nes said Deem. Deem also said he was inside China Some participants accept embryo gene editing experiments.

Rice said he had no knowledge of Deem's involvement and is now investigating.

Most of the attention so far has focused on legal regulations. China.

But that's not the whole story, Rosario Isasi, an expert on genomic law in the United States and China Miami University.

Asi How was it onguna and why it was, guna and let's focus on the wayguna, oldu Isasi said. A How can we build a system with better transparency? “

There is no international governing body implementing the rules of bioethics, but scientific institutions and universities can use other means.

Hank Greely, a law professor and genetic professor at Stanford, said, ler If someone violates these rules, scientists may be excluded, refuse to publish magazines, employers may refuse to hire, and funders may refuse funding. Stan

Greed, whether the regulators act or not, hopes that the experiment will fluctuate in the academic field. Lar Universities will look more at what's going on. This event will alert everyone about relevant research. "

Of course, sometimes bad beginnings can turn into better endings.

In 1980, Martin Cline, a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, was approved to undertake the first female gene therapy for two women in Israel and Italy, as they did not get approval to test it in UCLA.

Cline announced his work rather than publishing it in a scientific journal, and was exposed to criticism to try "genetic engineering" while safety and efficacy in animals had not yet been established. Gene therapy has now been established, although it is still quite a new treatment method.

Two years ago, in 1978, Robert Edwards similarly condemned the press when he announced Louise Brown, the world's first ında test tube baby Robert. The job then won a Nobel Prize, and the IFV helped make millions of children.

And this year, Louise Brown – the mother of her two sons, was designed in the old-fashioned way – she turned 40.

Source link