A team of researchers from France, Sweden, and Denmark identified the new strain of Yersinia pestis, the bacteria that cause the plague, in DNA extracted from 5000-year-old human remains.
Analyzes, published in December 6 magazine Cellsuggests that this strain is the closest to the genetic origin of plagues. Their work suggests that, among the Neolithic European settlements, the tubers could have contributed to the fall of the plague in the beginning of the Bronze Age.
Ir The plague is perhaps one of the most deadly bacteria for humans. And if you think of the word da plague ortaya, this disease can be expressed by Y. pestis, but an attack that occurs in our history due to trauma and stuns, more generally, refers to any epidemic. The analysis we do here, back in time, let us look at how the pathogen has had such a huge impact on us, büyük says Simon Rasmussen (@simonrasmu), a metagenome science researcher at the Technical University of Denmark, at the University of Copenhagen.
To better understand the evolutionary history of the plague, Rasmussen and colleagues screened similar modern plague strains using genetic data from older people. In the genetic material of a 20-year-old woman who died about 5,000 years ago in Sweden, they found a strain they had never seen before. The strain today had the same genes that led to the secretion of pneumonic plague, and its traces were found in another individual at the same grave site – suggesting that the young woman was probably suffering from the disease.
This plague epidemic is the oldest thing discovered. What made it particularly interesting, however, was that by comparing them with other strains, researchers were able to determine that they were also the most basic. This is the meaning of forcing the closest to the genetic origin of Y. pestis. While it was probably 5,700 years ago, it was observed that the plague which is common in the Bronze Age and the ancestor of the current strains was separated 5,300 and 5,100 years ago. This suggests that there are many plague epidemics that exist at the end of the Neolithic period.
Rasmussen also believes that this finding presents a new theory of how plagues are spread. It is known that large human migrations from the Eurasian steppes to Europe occurred about 5,000 years ago, but it is still debated how these cultures have changed the culture of Neolithic farming in Europe. The previous investigators claimed that the invaders brought with them the sacrifices, and that the Stone Age farmers destroyed the large settlements when they arrived.
But it is likely that researchers in Swedish women evolved from the rest of Y pestis 5,700 years ago, possibly before the beginning of these transitions, and until the Neolithic European settlements began to collapse.
At that time, mega-settlements with a population of 10,000-20,000 in Europe began to become widespread, specializing in Europe, enabling new technology and trade. But they can also be a breeding ground for the plague. Büyük These mega-settlements were then the largest settlement in Europe, ten times larger than anything else. People, animals and stored foods had close and possibly poor health measures. Rasmussen is the textbook example you need to develop new pathogens.
“We think our data is appropriate. If the neighborhood had evolved in the mega-settlements, then when the people began to die from them, the settlements would be abandoned. This is exactly what was observed in these settlements 5 thousand 500 years ago. During this period, all the trade routes that are possible with the rapidly expanding wheeled transportation across Europe will begin. Tekerlekli
In the end, he argues that women in the small residential district of Sweden, where the team lives, can come from the plague through these trade interactions. She claims that the woman's own DNA provides more evidence for this theory – it is not genetically related to the people who occupied Europe from the Eurasian steppes, but it supports the idea that this burden of plague has come before mass migration. Archeology also supports this hypothesis because there are no signs of invaders until the time of death.
Of course, there are some limitations on what this data can tell us. Most importantly, the researchers did not identify the plagues in individuals in mega-settlements, where they may have evolved. Henüz We didn't really find the cigarette gun, but partly because we haven't looked at it yet. And we really want to do this, because if we can find plague in these settlements, there will be strong support for this theory, istiy says Rasmussen.
Regardless, he believes that this study is a step towards understanding that the plague and other pathogens are deadly. Or We often think that these super-pathogens are always around, but that's not the case, “he says. I Plague evolved from a relatively harmless organism. More recently, the same thing happened with smallpox, malaria, Ebola and Zika. This process is very dynamic – and continues. It is very interesting to try to understand how we go to something harmless from something extremely dangerous. "
Header Image – This image shows the remains of a 20-year-old woman (Gokhem2) of about 4900 BP killed by the first plague epidemic. He was one of the victims of a plague outbreak that could lead to the decline of Neolithic societies in Europe. Credit: Karl-Göran Sjögren / Göteborg University