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Is sugar really bad for you?



Now it's hard to imagine, but there was a time when people could only get sugar for a few months in a year when there were some fruits in the season.

About 80,000 years ago, hunter-gatherers had eaten the berries intermittently and infrequently, for they were competing with birds.

Now, with a small nutritional value and easier access, we only have one sugar or a box of corn flakes and have a sugar all year round.

It is not necessary to consult a specialist to see that our sugar intake is less healthy than our hunting or food collection days.

Today, sugar has become the number one enemy of public health: taxed by the government, removed from vending machines by schools and hospitals, and removed from experts recommended by experts.

But so far, scientists have made efforts to prove how it affects our health, whether or not there is a very high diet in calories.

Is it possible to find only one offender?

Studies conducted in the last five years and published in the European Journal of Nutrition have shown that a diet containing more than 150 grams of fructose a day reduces insulin sensitivity and therefore increases the risk of developing health problems such as elevating blood pressure and high blood pressure. cholesterol levels.

However, the researchers have concluded that this potential health impact is not only caused by high sugar intake, but also by excessive calories. This would be the problem opened.

There is also an argument that the demonization of a single food is dangerous and leads to a mess that causes us to cut down on vital nutrients.

Sugar, also known as "sugar-added", contains such sugar, sugars, honey and fruit juices, is extracted, refined and placed in foods and beverages to flavor.

The complex and simple carbohydrates, however, consist of sugar molecules that are converted into glucose during digestion, used by the body's cells to produce energy and feed the brain.

Complex carbohydrates contain whole grains and vegetables. Simple carbohydrates are more easily digested and rapidly released into the bloodstream. Fructose fed from the meal includes sugars, such as high fructose corn syrup, which is naturally found in human nutrients such as lactose, sucrose and glucose.

Before the 16th century, only the rich could buy sugar. But this supply expanded with colonial trade.

Subsequently, large-scale conversion of glucose to fructose in the 1960s led to the creation of high fructose corn syrup with glucose and fructose concentrate.

This powerful combination over any other type of sugar is what many public health advocates consider the most deadly – and that's what many people think when it comes to "sugar".

Candy Run

The consumption of high fructose corn syrup in the US increased by more than ten times between 1970 and 1990, compared to other food groups. Researchers said this is related to increasing obesity across the country.

In the meantime, sugary drinks, which generally use fructose-rich corn syrup, have been effective in studies investigating the effects of sugar on our health.

A meta-analysis of 88 studies found a link between sugary drinks and body weight consumption. In other words, people cannot fully compensate for receiving energy from soft drinks that are consuming less than other foods – probably these drinks increase hunger or reduce toughness.

The researchers conclude that although the soft drinks and sugar intake added with obesity in the United States has increased, the data represent only broad correlations. And not everyone agrees that high fructose corn syrup is a decisive factor in the obesity crisis.

Some experts have shown that sugar consumption has declined over the last decade in countries like the US, even at increasing levels of obesity. As in Australia and Europe, there are also obesity and diabetes outbreaks in areas where high fructose corn syrup is not used or is not used at all.

High fructose corn syrup is not the only type of sugar that is problematic. Added sugar, especially fructose, is accused of various problems.

Some experts say it causes heart disease. This is because if liver cells break down the fructose, one of the end products is a form of triglyceride – an oil that can accumulate in cells of the organ over time. When triglyceride is left in the bloodstream, it can contribute to the growth of fat plaques within the walls of the arteries.

A 15-year study seemed to have confirmed this: those who consume less than 10% of those consuming 25% or more of their daily calories are twice as likely to die from heart disease. .

Type 2 diabetes also binds to additional sugar consumption. Two major studies in the 1990s revealed that women who consume more than one soda or fruit juice a day are rarely twice as likely to develop diabetes.

dependence

However, this does not mean that sugar actually causes heart disease or diabetes.

Luc Tappy is a professor of physiology at the University of Lausanne in Switzerland.

Tır More energy intake than wasted, in the long run, will lead to fat accumulation, insulin resistance and a fatty liver, independent of the diet composition, “he says. "A high fructose / sugar diet will be well tolerated even if people with a high energy consumption combined with a high energy consumption."

Tappy indicates that athletes have lower rates of cardiovascular disease, for example, although they generally consume more sugar: high fructose intake can be metabolised to improve performance during exercise.

In general, there is insufficient evidence that added sugar directly causes type 2 diabetes, heart disease, obesity or cancer. Yes, higher purchases are associated with these conditions. However, clinical trials still need to determine that they originate from these foods.

Sugar has also been associated with addiction, but there is no scientific result about it.

An analysis published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine in 2017 showed that mice could experience escape from sugars and claimed that the substance produced cocaine-like effects, such as longing.

The British newspaper, however, was accused of misinterpreting evidence. One of the main criticisms was that mice restricted sugar consumption for two hours a day. If you allowed them to consume sugar when they wanted it, it would reflect the way people used it, not behave like addiction.

Nevertheless, studies have shown in other ways how sugar affects our brain.

Instant Happiness

Matthew Pase, a researcher at Swinburne Human Psychopharmacology Center in Australia, examined the relationship between the consumption of sweet drinks and brain health markers determined by MRI scans.

Those who drink soft drinks and juices had lower brain volumes and less memory.

Consumers who consume two sugary drinks a day have aged their brain for two years compared to those who do not drink. However, when Pass only measures juice consumption, it cannot be sure that only sugar affects the brain's health.

Ler People who drink more juice or soda can share other dietary habits or lifestyle related to their health, for example they can exercise less, Pass Pass says.

In a recent study, it has been found that sugar can help improve memory and performance in older adults. The researchers gave the participants a drink containing a small amount of glucose and asked them to perform various memory tasks. The other participants received a beverage containing artificial sweetener. They measured their perceptions of participants' level of participation, memory capacity and how much effort they should take.

The results suggest that consuming sugar can cause people to do more to carry out challenging tasks. Increased blood sugar levels also made them feel happier during the task.

Young adults increased energy after drinking a beverage glucose, but this did not affect mood or memory.

The current guidelines say that added sugars should not constitute more than 5% of our daily calorie intake, but nutritionist Renee McGregor says it is important to understand that healthy and balanced diet is not the same for all.

Fazla I work with athletes who need to drink more sugar because they work hard, because they can be easily digested. But they are worried that they have pushed the limits of the proposal. Ama

Without Vilanizar

For non-athletes, it is true that added sugar is not necessary for a healthy diet. However, some experts warn us that we should not describe it as toxic. McGregor secures its customers with a healthy diet, including those with ortoxexia, and says it's not healthy to label food as "good" or "bad".

And turning the sugar into a taboo can only make it more attractive. , After you tell him you can't do anything, you want him, “he says. ”Therefore, I cannot say that nothing is limitless, that a food is not nutritional value, sometimes food has other values.“

Alan Levinovitz, associate professor at James Madison University, USA, explores the relationship between religion and science. He says it is a simple reason to think of candy as evil: Throughout history, we demonize things that we find most difficult to resist (think about sexual pleasure in the Victorian period). Today, we do it with sugar to control it with desires.

"When we see things with a simple duality between good and evil, it is unthinkable that this bad thing can exist in moderation." "says.

Levinovitz argues that seeing food at such extreme points can leave us worried about what we eat and can make a moral decision for something that is necessary and everyday: decide what to eat.

Taking sugar from our diets can be reversed: it could mean that a fat is replaced with potentially more calories, such as replacing a sugar in a recipe. As a result of the increasing debate about sugar, we carry the risk of mixing these foods and beverages with healthy foods that contain sugar, such as fruits, and additional sugar with no other important nutrients such as soda.

One person who makes this distinction thinks that all sugars are unhealthy, while Tina Grundin, 28, is a Swedish man.

He followed a vegan diet, which resulted in a non-prescription eating disorder and high in protein and fat.

“When I started vomiting after dinner, I knew I couldn't go on anymore. I was afraid of sugar in every way. Her ”So I realized that there was a difference between sugar and sugar as a carbohydrate and I adopted the high fructose and high starch diet with fruits, vegetables, starches and natural sugars found in legumes.“

"From the first day, the fog was scattered and I could clearly see it. Finally, I gave carbohydrate glucose, fueled cells in sugar."

While there may be disagreements about how different types of sugar affect our health, it may be best to think less about it.

McGregor says: olarak We make nutrition really difficult, because basically, what everyone is looking for is to feel complete and perfect, feel good. "But it doesn't exist."

Read the original version of this report (EnglishThe Future of BBC.

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