Science fiction is full of special gifts and mutant superheroes with extraordinary abilities. But in the real world, some ordinary people also have special "forces" passed through their genes.
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There are some genetic advantages that reach a very small proportion of the population. Spontaneous mutations emerged through a natural process in the DNA of affected people.
Just like some hereditary genetic diseases, others inherit genes that give them extraordinary abilities.
Here are five examples of "superpowers" that some people have with genetics.
1. Excellent underwater vision
Most people get blurry vision when they open their eyes under water. This is due to a physical problem, not because of the water damaging our eyes in some way: the density of water is similar to that of our eyes. Therefore, light is different from the retina.
So most people can only see through the air.
But there is one exception: Moken people living on the shores of Thailand, in the region of the Andaman Sea. The attack is called "gypsies of the sea" to spend most of the year living on rafts and boats. They just go ashore to get some supplies.
If you had moken genes, you could see the perfect underwater.
This mutation is believed to have been chosen by the lifestyle of the tribe, which includes long submarine harpoon fishing.
A research published in the journal Science in 2003 Biology Available He showed that the genetic mutation of Moken caused his eyes to undergo some underwater deformation.
This allows the light to be evenly distributed when taken by the eyes – allowing them to see clearly even at a depth of more than 20 meters.
2. Cold tolerance
Another genetic advantage observed in some traditional peoples is the resistance to low temperatures.
The temperature of the healthy human body varies from 36.5 ° C to 37.5 ° C. That's why most of us can handle hot climates better than cold.
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A normal human body cannot withstand extreme cold, but some human populations have this ability through their genes.
The tribes such as Intor, Inuit, and the neneties living in northern Russia adapted to low temperatures.
Their bodies react differently to the cold, because they have a different constitution than other people.
For example, they don't shake like the others. Less sweat glands (they produce sweat); skins are thicker than normal; and your metabolism is faster than other people.
These are genetic characteristics: you will not be able to obtain the same genetic mutations from these people, even if you have moved to the middle of the Arctic and have been there for decades.
3. Less hours of sleep
Even if you don't belong to a particular ethnic group, you can have a good function, even with less hours of sleep than the average person.
Many scientific studies have shown that most people should sleep between 7 and 9 hours at night to feel the sensation of body and mind.
It may cause less sleep, health problems and also psychological disturbances such as lack of concentration.
However, a scientific study published in 2014 with non-identical twins allowed the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to describe a genetic mutation that allows some people to need less hours of sleep.
People with a mutation in the DEC2 gene have a more intensive REM sleep phase, which makes their rest more effective.
With six hours of sleep or less, these people are already fully rested and feel ready to face the next day.
Nevertheless, researchers point out that this is a mutation that affects a very small portion of the world's population – less than 1% of those who say they sleep less.
Therefore, if you sleep very little and think that everything is okay and you think you should be the bearer of this genetic mutation, you probably know that it is not true: you will probably need more sleep.
4. Intensive bones
Here's a genetic advantage that looks like a way out of a superhero story.
In most people, as the bones age, they lose their density and mass. The problem is known as osteoporosis and can lead to fractures and deformations in the bones.
However, some people have mutations in a gene called SOST that regulates the production of a protein called sclerotin. This is the protein that controls the production and growth of bones.
Research by researchers in Washington (USA) found evidence of the presence of some mutated individuals in the SOST gene and the lack of bone mass as they age.
His bones continue to become mass and continue to concentrate throughout his life, giving him a skeleton that resembles a much younger man.
This mutation in the SOST gene has been found in some people of Afrikaans origin (descendants of former Dutch colonies of South Africa).
Now, researchers are looking for ways to amplify the effects of this mutation so that others can achieve the same benefits.
5. Adaptation to Height
Andean communities have a word for the lack of air felt by people at high altitude: Sorochan to. The person who has never felt this evil will definitely forget the word.
Sorochan toor badly, it often causes nausea, low blood pressure, headache, and respiratory problems.
There are many tricks to minimize effects: move slowly, eat less, don't make great physical efforts, and chew the coca leaf. Some people are taking drugs. Even so, most of them continue to suffer.
But "mountain sickness" does not affect the traditional populations of the plateaus.
Studies with the people of Quechua (Andes) and Himalayan Tibetans have shown that they choose genetically adaptations to live in these environments.
They have a larger thoracic cage than the average and have a higher lung capacity, allowing them to absorb more oxygen in each breath.
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In addition, most people produce less of these under low oxygen conditions as they begin to produce more blood cells (blood-bearing oxygen).
These characteristics remain even when a member of these populations moves to a lower altitude position because they are written in their DNA.
These mutations don't make them "superheroes." However, when these locals think they have superpowers when they see a mountain top, tourist groups creep up slowly towards the summit.