Saturday , November 28 2020

The Origin of the Universe: "More a mess"

How is this produced in LHC?
In LHC we collide as much as possible with the atomic nucleus. This causes the kinetic energy to be transformed into heat energy. temperatureAbout 200,000 times temperature in the sun.

Do we know what happened before?
universe in

Big Bangsingularity, appeared. Since then, it expands and cools to 2.7 degrees Kelvin today. Before the quark gluon plasma, after the singularity, there was a period of rapid expansion, inflation and a period called the electroweak. Phase transitionElectromagnetism and weak nuclear power are divided. All this in a very short period of time, then a millionth of a second Big Bang Then there was Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP).

Can we find the traces of this time directly? universe to observe?
No direct traces. universeWe can get out of the expansion universe when to recalculate and know Big Bang took place. In addition to the hydrogen, helium and lithium frequencies of the light elements, we can deduce from the isotopes of this atomic nucleus, in the first second and in minutes. universe from protons and neutrons crystallized from the plasma, coming from the early stage. universeThe Cosmic Microwave Background also allows in a way, but only 270,000 years later. Big Bangmore than that universe It was transparent to radiation. Quark Gluon Plasma and its properties directly origin,

What do we know about QGP?
The original idea was that it could be an ideal gas. However, we found that the laboratory is three to four times more critical temperature still a strongly combined system. We can do this today temperature and the viscosity of QGP. It shows that viscosity behaves similarly to ultracold quantum systems. That's why the coldest and warmest systems we know have something in common. We also know that QGP is high. temperature too much. The pressure is so high that it expands in three quarters of the speed of light in the laboratory.

So the idea of ​​gas is dead?
The idea that it is much higher temperatures a decoupling occurs and then the system acts as an ideal gas.

Which QGP volume is produced in the laboratory?
About five to ten thousand cubic meters, about 10-41 Cubic meters. It sounds like a little, but there's about 30,000. quarks and gluonsinteractions with each other over color charges. This is quite a soup, the particles also move on macroscopic scales, ie in this context over distances with more than one proton radius.

What is the relationship between quarks and gluons?
LHC produces approximately ten times more gluons by quarks,

Is a QGP a compatible case like the Bose-Einstein condensate?
We tested that. The density of our QGP is high enough, but we see no signs. QGP is more of a complexity.

QGP is an endpoint for the substance, or can another state wait for higher energies?
Being in front of Electroweak Phase transition To look, we must have enough energy to make one. temperature to reach hundreds of Gigaelectroninvolt. This is not possible and perhaps it will remain that way. Today we have an energy in LHC and temperature Approximately 200,000 times, 150 MeVs temperature in the sun. Energy intensity increases with fourth power temperatureSo you really need a lot of energy.

No theoretical idea, what could it be?
No. However, there is the idea of ​​increasing the density without overheating. In neutron stars, such a cold QGP may occur. We can recognize this from the state equation, ie energy, pressure and density.

What did this item look like?
Unfortunately I can't imagine it. We will be able to prove this indirectly.

What are the most important questions in the investigation of QGP?
We are mainly interested in Phase transition normal We investigate this with detailed statistical methods, the measurements are very complex. LHC will get an update as soon as possible. From 2021, we can have much higher densities with 50,000 particles per second. This should allow us to observe the events that are still escaping today because they rarely live today.

Phase transition Is it too fast?
Laboratory quarks and gluons only ten femtometer away. After that, it's over.

What particles does QGP concentrate on?
All the Hadrons we know, including antimatter, are here. In 70 million collisions, we discovered ten anti-alpha particles. If you follow the condensation chain to the end, stay protonsNeutrons and atomic nuclei remain. Which particles appear among them only temperature from.

out also unknown particles?
After that we pay attention. For example, theorists H-dicionion, six quarks There, there. When we guess temperature none appear. After hyper nuclei and antihypertas, which few protons or neutrons replaced with lambda particles, still looking.

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