Tuesday , October 19 2021

Great Death accused of echoing drowning criminals


A huge series of volcanic eruptions that hate breathing in the far left ocean creatures of the world. The researchers reported that greenhouse gases emitted by volcanoes significantly reduced the oxygen levels in the oceans, and that the deadly scenario, the Great Death, could be the main culprit.

Justin Penn, a world scientist from Washington University at Seattle and Washington University, showed how warm the oceans were during the largest mass extinction in the world at the end of the Permian Period 252 million years ago. From these climate simulations, the team explored the dangerously low concentrations of dissolved oxygen in which hot water caused ocean anoxia.

The team then combined these data with the oxygen requirements of modern ocean dwellers. Scientists have determined that hypoxia – the lack of oxygen for the metabolic needs of species – can be the primary culprit behind death. The research was published on December 7 ScienceHe also predicts that the effects of hypoxia will be the worst in polar latitudes and that the resulting fossil data support will be present.

Ox Anoxia has been used as a primary death mechanism for marine extinction for 20 years, yok says Lee Kump, who wrote a comment about the geochemistry of Penn State. Science. But what is unique about this work is the inclusion of how anoxia affects organisms living in different ecological niches in the oceans, he says.

In the Great Death, 90 percent of all marine species and 70 percent of the land vertebrate species died. The massive volcanic eruptions that were evacuated in the blows that began approximately 300,000 years ago from the beginning of the disappearance event were certainly the trigger for the Great Death (SN: 9/19/15, p. 10).

However, it is not clear exactly how these blasts will end. There are many ways in which volcanoes can make the world untenable. Volcanoes spread large carbon dioxide and methane gas emissions that rapidly and dramatically increased temperatures at sea and land. Eruptions may also have perforated holes in the ozone layer, allowing ultraviolet radiation to explode the planet and possibly sterilize plants on land.SN Online: 2/12/18).

The oceans took the biggest hit. Ocean temperatures in tropical regions have increased by at least 10 degrees Celsius, and ocean acidification or hypoxia can be a deadly blow to many living beings.

To identify a leading criminal, Penn and his colleagues decided to take a look at the animals themselves. Or, in modern postures for long extinct species. The team determined that the oxygen supply in the ocean would fall below the oxygen demand for nutrition, breeding and defense for various organisms.

The tropics have suffered, researchers have found, but many species have adaptations that allow them to have warming water and lower oxygen conditions. The worst of the death rate would be due to oxygen, the creation of which would not have been such an adaptation and where there was nowhere to go.

The team also benefited from a huge online database called the Paleobiology Database to investigate the endangered geographic patterns. Surprisingly, according to researchers, fossils claimed that species suffered more in the poles than in the tropics. Such a model had not been reported previously, he says, and is also a co-author of the study of biological ocean ocean photographer Curtis Deutsch from Washington University. Or No one has described a latitude difference, “he says. The similarities between the fossil record and the model data were arasındaki uncanny Fos.

The team also discussed the role of ocean acidification. But acidification would have the greatest effect in the tropics, not in the poles. Deutsch This is not evidence, but a strong indication that the basic mechanism is this oxygen loss, “says Deutsch.

It is unclear whether more creatures died at the poles at the end of the Permian. The fossil record can be irregular, accepts Deutsch, and therefore presents a missing picture. However, it is stated in the note that the high risk of death at high latitudes occurs in many different types, from fishes to vertebrates, such as molluscs, to crustaceans.

Kump, one of the most surprising findings of the new study, says the generation is a geographical pattern of extinction intensity. Although hydrogen implies that volcanic gases probably make oxygen poisons toxic by other means, including the addition of sulfur and carbon dioxide, it applauds the dahil new and sophisticated i approach by which researchers study hypoxia as the primary culprit. Water.

Still, he says, the new research iye the most comprehensive analysis of a killing mechanism and the physiological effects that have been made so far. This is really an advanced development. "

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