Friday , October 22 2021

& # 39; Zombie mushrooms & # 39; saving lives – and the planet



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He explores lands, trees and roots of fungi, because long walks are actually part of his job. She hopes to discover new mushroom species that are regularly hidden in the depths of dirt or that are high in the trees.

“We want to collect as many mushrooms as possible, üm said Landvik, a mushroom scientist at the biotechnology company Novozymes. "Diversity is the key to everything we do."

Organisms have many applications that can be useful to humanity in the production of food and alcohol, medicine, bio-fuel, detergents and even a childhood toy: LEGO.

Landvik explained that Fungi has unique assets. "They are very different from plants and are as different as animals. They are their kingdoms. The evolution of fungi has spread in many different directions. Really, it's really amazing."

The best estimate is that it has more than 3.8 million types of mushrooms worldwide – although it has been discovered only 144,000 according to this year's World Mushrooms Report, it has been compiled by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and several staff. others.

Landvik said that they found new ones by searching forest areas, collecting soil samples and bringing samples back to the laboratory to be examined.

But the real skill is to understand how they work.

In savages, mushrooms cannot move, so they compete for resources against other fungi or bacteria and produce toxic chemicals in this way. In some cases, these chemicals have been beneficial to people.

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When the samples reach the laboratory, Landvik says they are grown in a Petri dish and disintegrated, then put in a bottle with a carbon source that will help grow a nutrient fluid and fungi like minerals and vitamins.

Mushrooms grow by secreting enzymes – proteins that catalyze or accelerate chemical reactions – proteins captured by the liquid in the vial and allowing in-depth study.

Landvik investigated thousands of fungi before stumbling that researchers may have an application.

Each discovery "Something that can make a difference in the world, something that makes a greener industry possible, etc." "Lottery ticket," he says.

For example, one of the colleagues of Landvik found an enzyme that could be used to reduce the formation of chemical acrylamide when starchy food was cooked or fried and became carcinogenic. By studying a database for homologous gene sequences, sequences for asparaginase also found the name of the enzyme and soon found that this fungus contained many fungi. One of these was transformed into Acrylaway, a company that reduced the formation of acrylamide in food products processed at high temperatures. The company says it can reduce acrylamide production by up to 95%.
The more famous was the discovery of penicillin in 1928, when Alexander Fleming was discovered after a holiday when he was separating Petri dishes and growing up with an open area surrounding a mold pattern, when it later emerged as a species of Penicillium notatum.

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Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928.

The bad Puppetmaster & # 39;

Tom Prescott, research leader at the Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew in England, also notes many useful applications of fungi.

"In the broadest sense, the three major topics are perhaps very good for food, in biotechnology, and in the broadest sense … mushrooms," he explained. Fungi from around the world, including specimens collected by Charles Darwin and Alexander von Humboldt.

The Royal Botanic Gardens, with about 1.25 million mushrooms, are available at the funeral of Tom Prescott in Kew.

Prescott told CNN that people discovered mushrooms annually. "This is everything you can see with the naked eye, microscopic fungi, maybe you don't know they're there, but what we've detected using DNA is everything."

Some famous examples of medical applications are a hepatitis B vaccine, which is produced by the cholesterol-lowering drug lovastatin or yeast produced by the Aspergillus terreus fungus.

The drug fingolimod – an autoimmune disease used to treat multiple sclerosis – is a glamorous "zombie" mushroom, Isaria sinclairii, which occupies an insect, and behaves like a "bad puppet manager" in the end behaviors of the insects body and behavior Prescott, which is advantageous for mushrooms, said it activated a boxed sample of the fungus.

By the way, the bugs are kept alive, "so really terrible," he said. "It is very important that the fungus does not kill the insect first, but it is very important to keep it alive, so it produces an immunosuppressant chemical." This chemical is myelosis that also suppresses the human immune system.

Multiple sclerosis drug Fingolimod obtained from chemicals produced by the insect mushroom Isaria sinclairii.

I Many basic biochemistry and even immunology are surprisingly shared, even among insects and humans, “he explained.

Mushrooms are also useful in converting a chemical into another, as in the production of B-vitamin tablets.

Prescott, human chemists and mushrooms that are better in producing these pills, competition has become a more cost-effective option.

A Cordyceps fungus occupies a cricket to grow.

Saving the environment

About half of all commercially available enzymes are derived from fungi, with Shauna M. McKelvey and Richard A. Murphy writing "Fungus: Biology and Applications". Book The most important industrial application of enzymes refers to enzyme proteases and amylases used in detergent preparations.
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The use of enzymes in detergents dates back to 1988. The lipase from the thermomyces lanuginosus fungus is effective in removing the oil stains from the laundry.
Most detergents include various enzymes, such as proteases, amylases, cellulases and lipases, to increase efficacy and provide washing at lower temperatures.

Mushrooms are used to make clothes look fresh.

Prescott said the mushrooms are the natural shredders of the waste material. In the forests, by making enzymes called cellulase, they divide the leaf materials into pieces. "If you add cellulases to wash powders, they will nibbles in the small cotton strands of cotton fabrics and nibbles them, and perhaps give them a new-looking cotton look than it actually is."

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In September, Aspergillus tubingensis fungus was discovered in Pakistan. A team of 100 scientists reported that plastic materials such as polyester polyurethane, which is probably used in refrigerator insulation, could be broken down within weeks rather than years, which could potentially become an important player in the world's fight against plastic waste.

Prescott believes that the ultimate goal is to create plastic-like materials from fungi – which can then be broken down by fungi. It's not clear whether this is possible, but “that's what really makes it exciting. Bun

Mushrooms in agriculture

Another way to reduce pollution is by adding enzymes to animal feeds to help animals break down nutrients, such as phosphate, which they add to improve animal bone health and growth.

A fungal enzyme, phytase, breaks down such difficult chemicals and especially some molecules containing phosphate that cannot be digested by animals. As they are being thrown, phosphates can go into the waterways, where they cause bacterial growth. That consumes oxygen in the water, damaging the ecosystem of the water environment, he said. Prescott.

Landvik explained that the phytase released phosphates from the feed and helped the animals absorb these essential nutrients, reducing the cost of farmers and environmental pollution.

He believes that enzymes in mushrooms are key to making some industries more sustainable by changing some industrial steps.

Değiştirilebilir And if you're taking a mechanical or chemical step in the industry, they can usually be replaced by an enzyme that can do the same. But with less impact on the environment. Fakat

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