A current report by the World Health Organization (WHO) shows a wide range of antibiotics consumed in different countries.
In the report published on the first day of World Antibiotic Awareness Week, it was found that total antibiotic consumption in 65 countries in 2015 reached to 64.4 per 1,000 people per day with a 16-fold difference from 4.4 daily doses (DDD) per day. . The publication is the first publication to present a global outline of antibiotic consumption data based on a standardized global methodology from WHO.
WHO says data has taken the first step to help countries understand the amount of antibiotics used and how they are used at the national level. Hope will enable accurate, standardized data to help countries develop strategies to improve antibiotic use and to help global fight against antimicrobial resistance (AMR).
"The collection of data on the use of antibiotics is very important in ensuring that we can cope with the AMR and create evidence that will enable us to protect human health," said Soumya Swaminathan, deputy director-general for their programs.
Major changes in consumption
A large proportion of the data came from European countries that have been conducting surveillance on the use of antibiotics for several years, but 16 low- and middle-income countries were able to share their national data for the report. This is important because there is little information on the use of antibiotics in developing countries today. Since many of them lack the money and trained staff to set up and operate a national surveillance system for antibiotic consumption, WHO has been helping these countries establish monitoring systems over the last few years.
The lowest reported consumption of antibiotics (4.4 DDD / 1,000 per day) in Burundi and highest usage (64.4 DDD / 1,000 per day) was in Mongolia. The World Health Organization & # 39; re the Eurozone countries daily average of 17.9 DDD / 1,000 person consumes, the highest consumption (Turkey per day, 38.2 DDD / 1,000 inhabitants) and lowest consumption (Azerbaijan, 7.7 DDD / 1,000 per capita) by five There is a difference. days) countries.
The WHO says that major changes in antibiotic consumption suggest that some countries clearly exceed antibiotics, but the agency may reflect the quality and completeness of some of the data. For example, some countries, such as Burundi, provided only data on hospital antibiotic consumption, while others only provided data on antibiotic consumption in the population. In addition, several countries provided data only from the public sector. The most common data sources were sales and import records.
The report also reduces consumption according to the antibiotic class with antibiotics grouped according to the WHO categories of AWaRe (Access, Watch and Reserve). The categories were established in 2017 revision of the WHO main list of medicines to guide antibiotic prescribing and the use of antibiotics, and to ensure the use of antibiotics when necessary.
The Access category, consisting of first and second line drugs for common infections in all countries in 49 countries, represented more than 50% antibiotic consumption from amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate. Due to third-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and their potential to develop resistance, follow an antibiotic containing other drugs that should be used with caution, in some countries less than 20% of consumption and 50% in others.
Reserve antibiotics – last-resort drugs such as colistin intended to be used against multidrug-resistant infections – accounted for less than 2% of consumption in most high-income countries and were not reported by most low- and middle-income countries. WHO says it can show that these countries cannot access these drugs.
"It is important to note that estimates of national consumption may mask significant inequalities in access and access to antibiotics within a country."
Data will guide management efforts
In 2015, WHO initiated the global program in response to a lack of quality consumption data and a standard methodology for data collection, related to the surveillance of antimicrobial consumption. The agency provided workshops, training sessions and technical assistance to 57 low- and middle-income countries, and said they would continue to support efforts to develop their own surveillance systems. program.
WHO said data on antibiotic consumption would be very important to help countries create national and local antimicrobial management programs. "Based on surveillance data on antimicrobial resistance, the information on the volume and pattern of antimicrobial consumption helps to identify areas for improvement, to develop targeted interventions, and to monitor and evaluate the impacts of these interventions."
Starting from 2019, the consumption data will be integrated into the IT Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (GLASS), a web-based platform for countries to share surveillance data on antibiotic consumption and resistance.
12 November WHO report